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Anaphase, from the ancient Greek ανα (up) and φασις (stage), is the stage of mitosis when chromosomes separate in a eukaryotic cell. Each chromatid moves to opposite poles of the cell, the opposite ends of the mitotic spindle, near the microtubule organizing centers.
Additional recommended knowledge
Anaphase begins abruptly with the regulated triggering of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. At this point the Anaphase Promoting Complex (APC) becomes activated. This terminates metaphase (M-phase) activity by cleaving and inactivating the M-phase cyclin required for the function of M-phase cyclin dependent kinases (M-Cdks). It also cleaves securin, a protein that inhibits the protease known as separase. Separase then cleaves cohesin, a protein responsible for holding sister chromatids together.
Early and late anaphase
Within anaphase two distinct processes occur.
These two processes were originally distinguished by their different sensitivities to drugs, and mechanically they are distinct processes.
The contributions of early anaphase and late anaphase to anaphase as a whole vary with cell type. In mammalian cells, late anaphase follows shortly after early anaphase and extends the spindle to around twice its metaphase length; in contrast yeast and certain protozoa use late metaphase as the main means of chromosome separation and can extend the spindle to up to 15 times its metaphase length in the process.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Anaphase". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|