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Sucralfate (brand names Sucramal® in Italy; Carafate®)in U.S.A."Pepsigard","Sucral" in india) ,is an oral gastrointestinal medication primarily indicated for the treatment of active duodenal ulcers. It is also used for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and stress ulcers. Unlike the other classes of medications used for treatment of peptic ulcers, sucralfate is a sucrose sulfate-aluminum complex that binds to the hydrochloric acid in the stomach and acts like an acid buffer with cytoprotective properties. Sucralfate was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1981. Chemically, it is composed of C12H14O11(SO3Al(OH)2)8·(Al(OH)3)x·(H2O)y, where x is 8 to 10 and y is 22 to 31.
Additional recommended knowledge
Mechanism of action
Sucralfate is a locally acting substance that in an acidic environment (pH < 4), reacts with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form a cross-linking, viscous, paste-like material capable of acting as an acid buffer for as long as 6 to 8 hours after a single dose. It also attaches to proteins on the surface of ulcers -- such as albumin and fibrinogen -- to form stable, insoluble complexes. These complexes serve as protective barriers at the ulcer surface, preventing further damage from acid, pepsin, and bile. In addition, it prevents back diffusion of hydrogen ions, and adsorbs both pepsin and bile acids. Recently, it has been indicated that sucralfate also stimulates the increase of prostaglandin E2, epidermal growth factors (EGF), bFGF), and gastric mucus.
The only FDA-approved indication for sucralfate is for the treatment of active duodenal ulcers not related to NSAID usage because the mechanism behind these ulcers is secondary to acid oversecretion. It is not technically approved for gastric ulcers because the main mechanism is not due to acid oversecretion but rather from diminished protection. The use for sucralfate in peptic ulcer disease has diminished recently, but it is still the preferred agent for stress ulcer prophylaxis.
Grade 1 bleeding experienced immediate relief with SUCRALFATE enema for 1 month. Grade 2 bleeding, SUCRALFATE enema and/or coagulation were effective. Grade 3 bleeding lasted for 1 year despite frequent transfusions and coagulation. Grade 2 and 3 rectal bleeding occurred in 8.5% of patients. The most significant risk factor was the ICRU-CRBED. Prompt treatment with a combination of SUCRALFATE enema and coagulation is effective in controlling Grade 1 and 2 rectal bleeding without the development of fistula or stricture.
The most common side effects seen are constipation and bezoar formation. Less commonly reported include flatulence, cephalalgia (headache), hypophosphatemia, and xerostomia (dry mouth). Nursing mothers: Uncertain.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Sucralfate". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|