My watch list
my.bionity.com  
Login  

Psychedelic plants



 

Psychedelic Plants are plants that contain psychedelic drugs. Some of them have been used for thousands of years for religious purposes.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Cannabis

Main article: Cannabis


Cannabis (Marijuana) is a popular and unique psychedelic plant. Cannabis is also unique because it contains a psychedelic substance, THC, that contains no nitrogen and is not an indole, phenethylamine, anticholinergic (deliriant), or a disassociative drug. It is the weakest of the psychedelics but can produce vivid illusions at higher doses, similar to a low dose of a classic psychedelic such as psilocybin, or also a low dose of LSD. Currently, certain universities and research firms are studying the medicinal effects of cannabis. Many US states such as California and many countries have created a Medical Cannabis law to allow patients to use cannabis as (among other things) a pain killer and appetite stimulant.

Plants containing psychedelic tryptamines

 

  Many of the psychedelic plants contain DMT, which is either snorted (Virola, Yopo snuffs), smoked, or drunk with MAOIs (Ayahuasca). It can not simply be eaten, and it needs to be extremely concentrated to be smokable, since the user needs to smoke all of it in a minute or else tolerance builds rapidly.

Acanthaceae:

  • Justicia pectoralis, DMT in leaves[1]

Aizoaceae:

Delosperma acuminatum
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[2]
Delosperma cooperi
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[2]
Delosperma ecklonis
DMT[2]
Delosperma esterhuyseniae
DMT[2]
Delosperma hallii
5-MEO-DMT[2]
Delosperma harazianum
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[2]
Delosperma harazianum
Shibam
DMT[2]
Delosperma hirtum
DMT[2]
Delosperma hallii
aff. litorale
Delosperma lydenbergense
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[2]
Delosperma nubigenum
5-MEO-DMT[2]
Delosperma pageanum
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT[2]
Delosperma pergamentaceum
Traces of DMT[2]
Delosperma tradescantioides
DMT[2]

Apocynaceae:

  • Voacanga africana: Iboga alkaloids

Fabaceae family (Leguminosae):

Caesalpinioideae (subfamily of Fabaceae) :

  • Petalostylis cassioides: 0.4-0.5% tryptamine, DMT, etc. in leaves and stems[3]
  • Petalostylis labicheoides, Tryptamines in leaves and stems, MAO's up to 0.5%[4]
Acacia acuminata
Up to 1.5% alkaloids, mainly consisting of tryptamine in leaf[5]
Acacia adunca
β-methyl-phenethylamine, 2.4% in leaves[6]
Acacia alpina
Active principles in leaf[7]
Acacia aneura
Psychoactive.[8][9] Ash used in Pituri.[10] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[11]
Acacia angustifolia
Psychoactive,[8] Tryptamines
Acacia angustissima
β-methyl-phenethylamine[12], NMT and DMT in leaf (1.1-10.2 ppm)[13]
Acacia aroma
Tryptamine alkaloids.[14] Significant amount of tryptamine in the seeds.[15]
Acacia auriculiformis
5-MeO-DMT in stem bark[16]
Acacia baileyana
0.02% tryptamine and β-carbolines, in the leaf, Tetrahydroharman[7][17][18]
Acacia beauverdiana
Psychoactive[19] Ash used in Pituri.[10]
Acacia berlandieri
DMT, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine[20]
Acacia catechu
DMT[2] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia caven
Psychoactive[8]
Acacia chundra
DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia colei
DMT[21]
Acacia complanata
0.3% alkaloids in leaf and stem, almost all N-methyl-tetrahydroharman, with traces of tetrahydroharman, some of tryptamine[22][23][24]
Acacia concinna
Nicotine[25]
Acacia confusa
DMT & NMT in leaf, stem & bark 0.04% NMT and 0.02% DMT in stem.[7] Also N,N-dimethyltryptamine N-oxide[26]
Acacia constricta
β-methyl-phenethylamine[12]
Acacia coriacea
Psychoactive[8][9] Ash used in Pituri.[10]
Acacia cornigera
Psychoactive,[8] Tryptamines[27]
Acacia cultriformis
Tryptamine, in the leaf, stem[7] and seeds.[15] Phenethylamine in leaf and seeds[15]
Acacia cuthbertsonii
Psychoactive[19]
Acacia decurrens
Psychoactive,[8] but less than 0.02% alkaloids[18]
Acacia delibrata
Psychoactive[19]
Acacia falcata
Psychoactive,[19] but less than 0.02% alkaloids[18]
Acacia farnesiana
Traces of 5-MeO-DMT[28] in fruit. β-methyl-phenethylamine, flower.[29] Ether extracts about 2-6% of the dried leaf mass.[30] Alkaloids are present in the bark[31] and leaves.[32] Amphetamines and mescaline also found in tree.[27]
Acacia filiciana
Psychoactive[8]
Acacia floribunda
Tryptamine, phenethylamine,[33] in flowers[15] other tryptamines,[34] phenethylamines[35]
Acacia georginae
Psychoactive,[8] plus deadly toxins
Acacia greggii
N-methyl-β-phenethylamine,[12] phenethylamine[36]
Acacia harpophylla
Phenethylamine, hordenine at a ratio of 2:3 in dried leaves, 0.6% total[6]
Acacia holoserica
Hordenine, 1.2% in bark[6]
Acacia horrida
Psychoactive[8]
Acacia implexa
Psychoactive[37]
Acacia jurema
DMT, NMT
Acacia karroo
Psychoactive
Acacia kempeana
Psychoactive[8][9]
Acacia kettlewelliae
1.5[6]-1.88%[38] alkaloids, 92% consisting of phenylethylamine.[6] 0.9% N-methyl-2-

phenylethylamine found a different time.[6]

Acacia laeta
DMT, in the leaf[7]
Acacia lingulata
Psychoactive[8][9]
Acacia longifolia
0.2% tryptamine in bark, leaves, some in flowers, phenylethylamine in flowers,[33] 0.2% DMT in plant.[39] Histamine alkaloids.[18]
Acacia longifolia
var. sophorae
Tryptamine in leaves, bark[15]
Acacia macradenia
Tryptamine[15]
Acacia maidenii
0.6% NMT and DMT in about a 2:3 ratio in the stem bark, both present in leaves[7]
Acacia mangium
Psychoactive[8]
Acacia melanoxylon
DMT, in the bark and leaf,[40] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids[18]
Acacia mellifera
DMT, in the leaf[7]
Acacia nilotica
DMT, in the leaf[7]
Acacia nilotica
subsp. adstringens
Psychoactive, DMT in the leaf
Acacia obtusifolia
Tryptamine,[34] DMT, NMT, other tryptamines,[37] 0.4-0.5% in dried bark, 0.07% in branch tips.[41]
Acacia oerfota
Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf,[42][17] NMT
Acacia penninervis
Psychoactive[19]
Acacia phlebophylla
0.3% DMT in leaf, NMT[7]
Acacia platensis
Psychoactive[8]
Acacia podalyriaefolia
Tryptamine in the leaf,[7] 0.5% to 2% DMT in fresh bark, phenethylamine, trace amounts[33]
Acacia polyacantha
DMT in leaf[7] and other tryptamines in leaf, bark
Acacia polyacantha
ssp. campylacantha
Less than 0.2% DMT in leaf, NMT; DMT and other tryptamines in leaf, bark[43]
Acacia prominens
phenylethylamine, β-methyl-phenethylamine[33][6]
Acacia pruinocarpa
Psychoactive[8][9] Ash used in Pituri.[10]
Acacia pycantha
Psychoactive,[8] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids[18]
Acacia retinodes
DMT, NMT,[44] nicotine,[27] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids found[18]
Acacia rigidula
DMT, NMT, tryptamine, amphetamines, mescaline, nicotine and others[45]
Acacia roemeriana
β-methyl-phenethylamine[12]
Acacia salicina
Psychoactive[8][9] Ash used in Pituri.[10]
Acacia sassa
Psychoactive[8]
Acacia schaffneri
β-methyl-phenethylamine, Phenethylamine[36] Amphetamines and mescaline also found.[27]
Acacia schottii
β-methyl-phenethylamine[12]
Acacia senegal
Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf,[7] NMT, other tryptamines. DMT in plant,[29] DMT in bark.[15]
Acacia sieberiana
DMT, in the leaf[7]
Acacia simplex
DMT and NMT, in the leaf, stem and trunk bark, 0.81% DMT in bark, MMT[46][7]
Acacia taxensis
β-methyl-phenethylamine[12]
Acacia tenuifolia
Psychoactive[8]
Acacia tenuifolia
var. producta
Psychoactive[8]
Acacia tortilis
DMT, NMT, and other tryptamines[37]
Acacia verek
Psychoactive.[8] Less than 0.1% DMT in leaf, NMT, other tryptamines
Acacia vestita
Tryptamine, in the leaf and stem,[7] but less than 0.02% total alkaloids[18]
Acacia victoriae
Tryptamines[34], 5-MeO-alkyltryptamine[15]
Acacia visco
Psychoactive[8]

List of Acacia Species Having Little or No Alkaloids in the Material Sampled:[18]

0% \le C \le 0.02%, C...Concentration of Alkaloids [%]

  • Acacia acinacea
  • Acacia baileyana
  • Acacia decurrens
  • Acacia dealbata
  • Acacia mearnsii
  • Acacia drummondii
  • Acacia elata
  • Acacia falcata
  • Acacia leprosa
  • Acacia linearis
  • Acacia melanoxylon
  • Acacia pycnantha
  • Acacia retinodes
  • Acacia saligna
  • Acacia stricta
  • Acacia verticillata
  • Acacia vestita

Other Plants Containing DMT:

Anadenanthera colubrina
Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil
Bufotenin and Dimethyltryptamine have been isolated from the seeds and seed pods, 5-MeO-DMT from the bark of the stems.[49] The seeds were found to contain 12.4% bufotenine, 0.06% 5-MeO-DMT and 0.06% DMT.[50]
Anadenanthera peregrina
Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina

Bufotenine is in the seeds.[52]

Desmanthus illinoensis
0% - 0.34% DMT in root bark, highly variable [53]
Desmanthus leptolobus
0.14% DMT in root bark, more reliable than D. illinoensis[54]
Desmodium caudatum
Roots: 0.087% DMT,[55] Bufotenine-N-oxide 0.03%
Desmodium gangeticum
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT, whole plant, roots, stems, leaves[1]
Codariocalyx motorius
(syn. Desmodium gyrans)
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT, leaves, roots[1]
Desmodium pulchellum
DMT (dominates in seedlings and young plants), 5-MEO-DMT (dominates in mature plant), whole plant, roots, stems, leaves, flowers[1]
Desmodium racemosum
5-MEO-DMT[1]
Desmodium triflorum
DMT-N-oxide, roots[1]
Lespedeza capitata
Lespedeza bicolor
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in leaves and roots[56]
Lespedeza bicolor var. japonica
DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in leaves and root bark[1]
Mimosa ophthalmocentra
DMT[57]
Mimosa scabrella
DMT in bark[1]
Mimosa tenuiflora
(syn. "Mimosa hostilis")
0.31-0.57% DMT (dry root bark).[58]
Mimosa verrucosa
DMT[59]
Mucuna pruriens
"The leaves, seeds, stems and roots contain L-Dopa, Serotonin, 5-HTP, and Nicotine, as well as N,N-DMT, Bufotenine, and 5-MeO-DMT."[60]
Petalostylis casseoides
0.4-0.5% tryptamine, DMT, etc. in leaves and stems[56]
Petalostylis labicheoides var. casseoides
DMT in leaves and stems[1]
Phyllodium pulchellum
0.2% 5-MeO-DMT, small quantities of DMT[56]

Lauraceae:

  • Nectandra megapotamica, NMT[4]

Malpighiaceae family:

  • Diplopterys cabrerana: DMT 0.17-1.74%, average of 0.47% DMT[61]


Myristicaceae (Nutmeg family):

  • Horsfieldia superba: 5-MeO-DMT[56] and beta-carbolines[3]
  • Iryanthera macrophylla: 5-MeO-DMT in bark[56]
  • Iryanthera ulei: 5-MEO-DMT in bark[1]
  • Osteophloem platyspermum: DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark[1]
  • Virola genus; for example:
Virola calophylla Leaves 0.149% DMT, 0.006% MMT[1]
Virola callophylloidea DMT
Virola carinata DMT in leaves[1]
Virola cuspidata DMT[4]
Virola divergens DMT in leaves[1]
Virola elongata DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark and leaves[1]
Virola melinonii DMT in bark[1]
Virola multinervia DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark and leaves[1]
Virola pavonis DMT in leaves[1]
Virola peruviana DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark[1]
Virola rufula Alkaloids in bark and root, 95% of which is MeO-DMT [62]
Virola sebifera DMT in bark[1]
Virola surinamensis DMT[4]
Virola theiodora DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in bark, roots, leaves and flowers[1] DMT
Virola venosa DMT, 5-MEO-DMT in roots, leaves[1] DMT

Ochnaceae:

  • Testulea gabonensis: 0.2% 5-MeO-DMT, small quantities of DMT,[56] DMT in bark and root bark[1], NMT

Ochnaceae:

Genus Pandanus (Screw Pine): DMT in nuts[56]

Poaceae family (Gramineae)

Species
Alkaloids (Dried)
Arundo donax
0.0057% DMT in dried rhizome, no stem, 0.026% bufotenine, 0.0023% 5-MeO-MMT[63]
Phalaris aquatica
0.0007-0.18% Total alkaloids,[64] 0.100% DMT,[65] 0.022% 5-MeO-DMT,[65]0.005% 5-OH-DMT[65]
Phalaris arundinacea
0.0004-0.121% Total alkaloids[64]
Phalaris brachystachys
Aerial parts up to 3% total alkaloids, DMT present[citation needed]
Phragmites australis
DMT in roots[1]

None of the above alkaloids are said to have been found in Phalaris californica, Phalaris canariensis, Phalaris minor and hybrids of P. arundinacea together with P. aquatica.[64]

Polygonaceae:

  • Erigonum sp.: DMT[1]

Punicaceae:

  • Punica granatum "DMT in root cortex;"[4] The dried stem and root bark of the tree contain about 0.4-0.9% alkaloids.[66]


Rubiaceae family:

Species
Alkaloids (Dried)
Psychotria carthagenensis
0.2% average DMT in dried leaves[1]
Psychotria expansa
DMT[4]
Psychotria forsteriana
DMT[4]
Psychotria insularum
DMT[4]
Psychotria poeppigiana
DMT[4]
Psychotria rostrata
DMT[4]
Psychotria rufipilis
DMT[4]
Psychotria viridis
DMT 0.1-0.61% dried mass.[67]

Rutaceae family:

  • Dictyoloma incanescens DC.: 5-MeO-DMT in leaves,[1][62] 0.04% 5-MeO-DMT in bark[56]
  • Dutaillyea drupacea: > 0.4 % 5-MeO-DMT in leaves[1][37]
  • Dutaillyea oreophila: 5-MeO-DMT in leaves[1]
  • Evodia rutaecarpa: 5-MeO-DMT in leaves[1], fruit and roots
  • Limonia acidissima: 5-MeO-DMT in stems[1]
  • Melicope leptococca: 0.2% total alkaloids, 0.07% 5-MeO-DMT; 5-MeO-DMT in leaves and stems,[1] also "5-MeO-DMT-Oxide and a beta-carboline"[3]
  • Pilocarpus organensis: 5-MeO-DMT in leaves[1]
  • Vepris ampody: Up to 0.2% DMT in leaves and branches[1][56]
  • Zanthoxylum procerum: DMT in leaves[1]

Urticaceae:

  • Urtica pilulifera: Bufotenin[4]

Other Indoles

Acoraceae:

Mescaline

Species
Alkaloid Content (Fresh)
Alkaloid Content (Dried)
Echinopsis lageniformis
(syn. Trichocereus bridgesii)
Mescaline > 0.025%,[68] also 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine < 1%, 3-methoxytyramine < 1%, tyramine < 1%
2%[69]
Echinopsis pachanoi
(syn. Trichocereus pachanoi)
Mescaline 0.006-0.12%, 0.05% Average[70]
Mescaline 0.01%-2.375%[70]
Echinopsis spachiana
(syn. Trichocereus spachianus)
Mescaline[71]
Mescaline[71]
Lophophora williamsii
(Peyote)
0.4% Mescaline[72]
3-6% Mescaline[71]
Opuntia basilaris
Mescaline 0.01%, plus 4-hydroxy-3-5
-dimethoxyphenethylamine[71]
Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica
(syn. Opuntia cylindrica)[73]
Mescaline[71]
Cylindropuntia echinocarpa
(syn. Opuntia echinocarpa)
Mescaline 0.01%, 3-4-dimethoxyphenethylamine 0.01%, 4-hydroxy-3-5-dimethoxyphenethylamine 0.01%[71]
Cylindropuntia spinosior
(syn. Opuntia spinosior)[74]
Mescaline 0.00004%, 3-methoxytyramine 0.001%, tyramine 0.002%, 3-4-dimethoxyphenethylamine.[71]
Echinopsis macrogona
(syn. Trichocereus macrogonus)
> 0.01-0.05% Mescaline[75]
Echinopsis peruviana
(syn. Trichocereus peruvianus)
Mescaline 0.0005%-0.12%[70]
Mescaline
Echinopsis tacaquirensis
subsp. taquimbalensis
(syn. Trichocereus taquimbalensis)[76]
> 0.005-0.025% Mescaline[75]
Echinopsis terscheckii
(syn. Trichocereus terscheckii, Trichocereus werdemannianus)[77]
> 0.005-0.025% Mescaline[75]
Mescaline 0.01%-2.375%[70]
Echinopsis valida
0.025% Mescaline[72]

Plants containing beta-carbolines

  Beta-carbolines are "reversible" MAO-A inhibitors. They are found in some plants used to make Ayahuasca. In high doses the harmala alkaloids are somewhat hallucinogenic on their own.




Apocynaceae:

Amsonia tabernaemontana
Harmine
Aspidosperma exalatum
Beta-carbolines[78]
Aspidosperma polyneuron
Beta-carbolines[78]
Apocynum cannabinum
Harmalol
Ochrosia nakaiana
Harman
Pleicarpa mutica
Beta-carbolines[78]


Bignoniaceae:

  • Newbouldia laevis, Harman


Calycanthaceae:

Calycanthus occidentalis
Harmine

Chenopodiaceae:

  • Hammada leptoclada, Tetrahydroharman, etc.
  • Kochia scoparia, Harmine, etc.

Combretaceae:

  • Guiera senegalensis, Harman, etc.

Cyperaceae:

  • Carex brevicollis, Harmine, etc.
  • Carex parva, Beta-carbolines[78]

Elaeagnaceae:

Elaeagnus augustifolia
Harman, etc.
Elaeagnus commutata
Beta-carbolines[78]
Elaeagnus hortensis
Tetrahydroharman, etc.
Elaeagnus orientalis
Tetrahydroharman
Elaeagnus spinosa
Tetrahydroharman
Hippophae rhammoides
Harman, etc.
Shepherdia argentea
Tetrahydroharmol
Shepherdia canadensis
Tetrahydroharmol

Gramineae:

Arundo donax
Tetrahydroharman
Festuca arundinacea
Harman, etc.
Lolium perenne
(Perennial Ryegrass)
Harman, etc.
Phalaris aquatica
Beta-carbolines[78]
Phalaris arundinacea
Beta-carbolines[78]

Lauraceae:

  • Nectandra megapotamica, Beta-carbolines[78]

Leguminosae:

  • Acacia baileyana, Tetrahydroharman
  • Acacia complanata, Tetrahydroharman, etc.
  • Burkea africana, Harman, etc.
  • Desmodium gangeticum, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Desmodium gyrans, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Desmodium pulchellum, Harman, etc.
  • Mucuna pruriens, 6-Methoxy-Harman
  • Petalostylis labicheoides, Tetrahydroharman; MAO's up to 0.5%[4]
  • Prosopis nigra, Harman, etc.
  • Shepherdia pulchellum, Beta-carbolines[78]

Loganiaceae:

  • Strychnos melinoniana, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Strychnos usambarensis, Harman[78]


Malpighiaceae:

Banisteriopsis argentia
5-methoxytetrahydroharman, (-)-N(6)-methoxytetrahydroharman, dimethyltryptamine-N(6)-oxide[12]
Banisteriopsis caapi
Harmine 0.31-8.43%,[79] tetrahydroharmine, telepathine, dihydroshihunine[80]
Banisteriopsis inebrians
Beta-carbolines[78]
Banisteriopsis lutea
Harmine, telepathine[12]
Banisteriopsis metallicolor
Harmine, telepathine[12]
Banisteriopsis muricata
Harmine
Banisteriopsis rusbyana
Beta-carbolines[78]
Cabi pratensis
Beta-carbolines[78]
Callaeum antifebrile
(syn. Cabi paraensis)
Harmine

Myristicaceae:

  • Gymnacranthera paniculata, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Horsfieldia superba: Beta-carbolines[3]
  • Virola cuspidata, 6-Methoxy-Harman
  • Virola rufula, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Virola theidora, Beta-carbolines[78]

Ochnaceae:

  • Testulea gabonensis, Beta-carbolines[78]

Palmae:

  • Plectocomiopsis geminiflorus, Beta-carbolines[78]

Papaveraceae:

Meconopsis horridula
Beta-carbolines[78]
Meconopsis napaulensis
Beta-carbolines[78]
Meconopsis panuculata
Beta-carbolines[78]
Meconopsis robusta
Beta-carbolines[78]
Meconopsis rudis
Beta-carbolines[78]
Papaver rhoeas
Beta-carbolines[78]

Passifloraceae:

Passiflora actinea
Harman
Passiflora alata
Harman
Passiflora alba
Harman
Passiflora bryonoides
Harman
Passiflora caerulea
Harman
Passiflora capsularis
Harman
Passiflora decaisneana
Harman
Passiflora edulis
Harman, 0-7001 ppm[29] in fruit
Passiflora eichleriana
Harman
Passiflora foetida
Harman
Passiflora incarnata
(with bee)
Harmine, Harmaline, Harman, etc. 0.03%.[81] Alkaloids in rind of fruit 0.25%[81]
Passiflora quadrangularis
Harman
Passiflora ruberosa
Harman
Passiflora subpeltata
Harman
Passiflora warmingii
Harman

Polygonaceae:

  • Calligonum minimum, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Leptactinia densiflora, Leptaflorine, etc.
  • Ophiorrhiza japonica, Harman
  • Pauridiantha callicarpoides, Harman
  • Pauridiantha dewevrei, Harman
  • Pauridiantha lyalli, Harman
  • Pauridiantha viridiflora, Harman
  • Simira klugii, Harman
  • Simira rubra, Harman


Rubiaceae:

  • Borreria verticillata, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Leptactinia densiflora, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Nauclea diderrichii, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Ophiorrhiza japonica, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Pauridiantha callicarpoides, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Pauridiantha dewevrei, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Pauridiantha yalli, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Pauridiantha viridiflora, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Pavetta lanceolata, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Psychotria carthagenensis, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Psychotria viridis, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Simira klugii, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Simira rubra, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Uncaria attenuata, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Uncaria canescens, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Uncaria orientalis, Beta-carbolines[78]

Rubiaceae:

Rutaceae family:

  • Evodia species: Some contain carbolines
  • Melicope leptococca: Beta-carboline[3]
  • Araliopsis tabouensis, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Findersia laevicarpa, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Xanthoxylum rhetsa, Beta-carbolines[78]

Sapotaceae:

  • Chrysophyllum lacouritianum, Norharman etc.

Simaroubaceae:

  • Ailanthus malabarica, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Perriera madagascariensis, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Picrasma ailanthoides, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Picrasma crenata, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Picrasma excelsa, Beta-carbolines[78]
  • Picrasma javanica, Beta-carbolines[78]

Solanaceae:

  • Vestia foetida, (Syn V. lycioides) Beta-carbolines[78]

|

  • Symplocaceae:
  • Symplocos racemosa, Harman

Tiliaceae:

  • Grewia mollis, Beta-carbolines[78]

Zygophyllaceae:

Fagonia cretica
Harman
Nitraria schoberi
Beta-carbolines[78]
Peganum harmala
(Syrian Rue)
The seeds contain about 2-6% alkaloids, most of which is harmaline.[82] Peganum harmala is also an abortifacient.
Peganum nigellastrum
Harmine
Tribulus terrestris
Harman
Zygophyllum fabago
Harman, harmine

Other psychedelic plants

Salvinorin A

Salvia divinorum

Salvinorin A, 0.89-3.87 mg/g, also Salvinorin B and Salvinorin C[83]
Ergine

Argyreia nervosa (Hawaiian Baby Woodrose)

Seeds contain high amounts of LSA (also known as d-lysergic acid amide, d-lysergamide, ergine, and LA-111), often 50-150X the amounts found in Ipomoea violacea.
Ibogaine

Tabernanthe iboga

Ibogaine in root bark[84]
Ibogaine

Tabernanthe orientalis

Ibogaine in root leaves[84]
Ibogaine

Tabernanthe pubescens

Ibogaine and similar alkaloids[84]
Ibogaine

Tabernaemontana sp.

Ibogaine[84]
Ibogaine

Trachelospermum jasminoides

Ibogaine[85]
Aporphine

Nymphaea caerulea

Recent studies have shown Nympaea caerulea to have psychedelic properties, and may have been used as a sacrament in ancient Egypt and certain ancient South American cultures. Dosages of 5 to 10 grams of flowers induces slight stimulation, a shift in thought processes, and mild closed-eye visuals. Nymphaea caerulea is very often confused with Nelumbo nucifera (Sacred Lotus), which contains the alkaloid nuciferine, which has sedative and muscle-relaxing properties. The active principal alkaloid in N. caerulea is currently unknown.
Mitragynine

Mitragyna Speciosa

Leaves contain mitragynine (thought to be primary psychoactive), mitraphylline, and 7-hydroxymitragynine. (An unusual stimulant and narcotic-like effect reminiscent of caffeine and opium)
Leonurine

Leonotis leonurus

Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)
Leonurine

Leonotis nepetifolia

Both leaves and flowers (where most concentrated) contain Leonurine. (Effects reminiscent of marijuana)
Active Chemical Unknown

Calea zacatechichi

Produces vivid dreams after smoking. It is also employed by the Chontal people as a medicinal herb against gastrointestinal disorders, and is used as an appetizer, cathartic anti-dysentery remedy, and as a fever-reducing agent.

Convolvulaceae:

Ipomoea tricolor & Ipomoea violacea
D-lysergic acid amide
Rivea corymbosa
D-lysergic acid amide, lysergol, and turbicoryn
Some Mirabilis sp.
LSA


Apocynaceae family:


Aquifoliaceae family:

  • Ilex guayusa, which is used as an additive to some versions of Ayahuasca.[87] According to the Ecuadorian indigenous, it is also slightly hallucinogenic on its own, when drunk in high enough quantities.

Euphorbiaceae family:

Loganaceae family:

  • Desfontainia spinosa, causes visions[88]


Lythraceae family:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai Ayahuasca Analogues
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Trouts Notes on Sacred Cacti
  3. ^ a b c d e Bluezoo Tryptamines
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Plants Containing DMT
  5. ^ Lycaeum
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Fitzgerald, J.S. Alkaloids of the Australian Legumuminosae -- The Occurence of Phenylethylame Derivatives in Acacia Species, Aust. J . Chem., 1964, 17, 160-2.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Shaman Australis
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Index of Rätsch, Christian. Enzyklopädie der psychoaktiven Pflanzen, Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendungen, 7. Auflage. AT Verlag, 2004, 941 Seiten. ISBN 3855025703 at [1] (German)
  9. ^ a b c d e f Book Index from Richard Evans Schultes, Albert Hofmann Pflanzen der Götter at DeutschesFachbuch.de (German)
  10. ^ a b c d e Duboisia hopwoodii - Pituri Bush - Solanaceae - Central America
  11. ^ Wattle Seed Workshop Proceedings 12 March 2002, Canberra March 2003 RIRDC Publication No 03/024, RIRDC Project No WS012-06
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Glasby, John Stephen (1991). Dictionary of Plants Containing Secondary Metabolites. CRC Press, 2. ISBN 0850664233. 
  13. ^ English Title: Nutritive value assessment of the tropical shrub legume Acacia angustissima: anti-nutritional compounds and in vitro digestibility. Personal Authors: McSweeney, C. S., Krause, D. O., Palmer, B., Gough, J., Conlan, L. L., Hegarty, M. P. Author Affiliation: CSIRO Livestock Industries, Long Pocket Laboratories, 120 Meiers Road, Indooroopilly, Qld 4068, Australia. Document Title: Animal Feed Science and Technology, 2005 (Vol. 121) (No. 1/2) 175-190
  14. ^ Maya Ethnobotanicals
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h Acacia (Polish)
  16. ^ Lycaeum
  17. ^ a b www.serendipity.com
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen By Robert Hegnauer
  19. ^ a b c d e www.bushfood.net
  20. ^ Ask Dr. Shulgin Online: Acacias and Natural Amphetamine
  21. ^ www.abc.net.au
  22. ^ Acacia Complanata Phytochemical Studies
  23. ^ Lycaeum -- Acacias and Entheogens
  24. ^ Lycaeum
  25. ^ SBEPL
  26. ^ NMR spectral assignments of a new chlorotryptamine alkaloid and its analogues from Acacia confusa Malcolm S. Buchanan, Anthony R. Carroll, David Pass, Ronald J. Quinn Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry Volume 45, Issue 4 , Pages359 - 361. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  27. ^ a b c d Naturheilpraxis Fachforum (German)
  28. ^ Lycaeum
  29. ^ a b c Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases
  30. ^ Wattle Seed Workshop Proceedings 12 March 2002, Canberra March 2003 RIRDC Publication No 03/024, RIRDC Project No WS012-06
  31. ^ www.bpi.da.gov.ph
  32. ^ Purdue University
  33. ^ a b c d Hegnauer, Robert (1994). Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen. Springer, 500. ISBN 3764329793. 
  34. ^ a b c www.bluelight.ru
  35. ^ Lycaeum (Acacia floribunda)
  36. ^ a b Chemistry of Acacias from South Texas
  37. ^ a b c d wiki.magiskamolekyler.org (Swedish)
  38. ^ Acacia kettlewelliae
  39. ^ Lycaeum Acacia longifolia
  40. ^ extentech.sheetster.com
  41. ^ Acacia obtusifolia Phytochemical Studies
  42. ^ Plants Containing DMT (German)
  43. ^ Hortipedia
  44. ^ Pflanzentabelle APB (German)
  45. ^ Magiska Molekylers wiki
  46. ^ Arbeitsstelle für praktische Biologie (APB)
  47. ^ a b c d e f g UNO
  48. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases
  49. ^ Herbotechnica (Spanish)
  50. ^ Erowid
  51. ^ Psychedelics Encyclopedia By Peter G. Stafford, p. 313.
  52. ^ PubMed
  53. ^ Desmanthus (Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs)
  54. ^ Desmanthus (Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs)
  55. ^ Trout's Notes on Desmodium
  56. ^ a b c d e f g h i .
  57. ^ Erowid Mimosa Vault
  58. ^ Ask Erowid ID 75
  59. ^ UNODC Bulletin on Narcotics 1969
  60. ^ Erowid entry(2002), [2]
  61. ^ DMT Plants List
  62. ^ a b www.tryptamines.com
  63. ^ Erowid Arundo Donax Info Page 1
  64. ^ a b c Lycaeum
  65. ^ a b c Erowid Phalaris FAQ
  66. ^ Pomegranate (Herbdata New Zealand)
  67. ^ Amazing Nature
  68. ^ [3]
  69. ^ Trichocereus
  70. ^ a b c d Forbidden Fruit Archives
  71. ^ a b c d e f g Visionary Cactus Guide
  72. ^ a b Erowid
  73. ^ Austrocylindropuntia cylindrica (http://www.desert-tropicals.com)
  74. ^ Cylindropuntia spinosior (www.desert-tropicals.com)
  75. ^ a b c Partial List of Alkaloids in Trichocereus Cacti
  76. ^ Echinopsis tacaquirensis ssp. taquimbalensis
  77. ^ www.desert-tropicals.com
  78. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd Angiosperm Families Containing Beta-Carbolines
  79. ^ Callaway JC, Brito GS & Neves ES (2005). Phytochemical analyses of Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 37(2): 145-150.
  80. ^ John Stephen Glasby, Dictionary of Plants Containing Secondary Metabolites, Published by CRC Press
  81. ^ a b www.drugs.com
  82. ^ www.amazing-nature.com
  83. ^ Clones of Salvia divinorum
  84. ^ a b c d Tihkal
  85. ^ Trachelospermum jasminoides (www.giftpflanzen.com)
  86. ^ Catharanthus roseus
  87. ^ Ayahuasca Analogues
  88. ^ Schultes, Richard Evans, Iconography of New World Plant Hallucinogens. p. 101
  89. ^ a b Sinicuichi FAQ
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Psychedelic_plants". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE