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Protoplast, from the ancient Greek πρώτον (first) + verb πλάθω or πλάττω (to mould: deriv. plastic), initially referred to the first organized body of a species. This meaning is similar to the non-biological definition, the first from which all subsequent forms are derived.
Additional recommended knowledge
Subsequently it has several biological definitions:
Enzymes for the preparation of protoplasts
During and subsequent digestion of the cell wall, the protoplast becomes very sensitive to osmotic stress. This means cell wall digestion and protoplast storage must be done in an isotonic solution to prevent rupture of the plasma membrane.
Uses for protoplasts
Protoplasts are widely used for DNA transformation (for making genetically modified organisms), since the cell wall would otherwise block the passage of DNA into the cell. Protoplasts may be regenerated into whole plants first by growing into a group of plant cells that develops into a callus and then by regeneration of shoots (caulogenesis) from the callus using plant tissue culture methods. Growth of protoplasts into callus and regeneration of shoots requires the proper balance of plant growth regulators in the tissue culture medium that must be customized for each species of plant.
Protoplasts may also be used for plant breeding, using a technique called protoplast fusion. Protoplasts from different species are induced to fuse by using an electric field or a solution of polyethylene glycol. This technique may be used to generate somatic hybrids in tissue culture.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Protoplast". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|