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List of fossil birds




 

Birds are generally believed to have evolved from certain feathered theropod dinosaurs, and there is no real dividing line between birds and dinosaurs, except of course that some of the former survived the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event while the latter did not. For the purposes of this article, a 'bird' is considered to be any member of the clade Aves sensu lato[1]. Some dinosaur groups which may or may not be true birds are listed below under 'Proto-birds'.

This page contains a listing of prehistoric bird taxa only known from completely fossilized specimens. These extinctions took place before the Late Quaternary and thus took place in the absence of significant human interference. While the earliest hominids had been eating birds and especially their eggs, human population and technology was simply insufficient to seriously affect healthy bird populations until the Upper Paleolithic Revolution. Rather, reasons for the extinctions listed here are stochastic abiotic events such as bolide impacts, climate change due to orbital shifts, mass volcanic eruptions etc. Alternatively, species may have gone extinct due to evolutionary displacement by successor or competitor taxa - it is notable that an extremely large number of seabirds have gone extinct during the mid-Tertiary; this seems at least partly due to competition by the contemporary radiation of marine mammals.

The relationships of these taxa are often hard to determine, as many are known only from very fragmentary remains and due to the complete fossilization precluding analysis of information from DNA, RNA or protein sequencing. The taxa listed in this article should be classified with the Wikipedia conservation status category "Fossil".


Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Taxonomic list of fossil prehistoric birds

Higher-level taxa are presented in likely or suspected phylogenetic order. Genus-level taxa and lower are sorted chronologically, in ascending order (i.e., older taxa first).

The higher-level groups of non-Neornithes are arranged based on the phylogeny proposed by Luis Chiappe[2], updated and expanded to incorporate recent research[3]. The categories are inclusive in ascending order: e.g., every basal pygostylian is a member of the Aves (but more advanced than "basal Aves"), etc.

Please be aware that taxonomic assignments, especially in the pygostylian to early neornithine genera, are still very provisional and subject to quite frequent change.

†"Proto-birds"

    This category contains very early fossils that some consider the earliest evidence of birds and others which are generally agreed to be theropods but the placement of which in regard to birds is controversial. Most scientists consider them - especially the mysterious Alvarezsauridae - closely related to birds, and some find them avian enough to include in the birds outright. In any case, these forms demonstrate that feathered wings and other "avian" features were not limited to true birds, but evolved independently in several related lineages of theropods.

See also Archaeopterygiformes and Deinonychosauria, and Origin of birds.

  • "Protoavis" (Late Triassic) - a nomen dubium
  • "Palaeopteryx" (Late Jurassic) - a nomen dubium
  • Oviraptorosauria
    • e.g. Caudipteryx (Early Cretaceous)
  • Scansoriopterygidae
    • e.g. Epidendrosaurus (Early Cretaceous)
  • Troodontidae
    • e.g. Mei (Early Cretaceous)
  • Therizinosauria
    • e.g. Beipiaosaurus (Middle Cretaceous)
  • Alvarezsauridae
    • e.g. Shuvuuia (Late Cretaceous)
  • Dromaeosauridae
    • e.g. Rahonavis (Late Cretaceous)

†Basal Aves

  The most primitive birds, usually still possessing a long bony tail with generally unfused vertebrae.

  • Unresolved forms
    • Dalianraptor (Early Cretaceous)
    • Jixiangornis (Early Cretaceous)
    • Shenzhouraptor (Early Cretaceous) - sometimes called Jeholornis
  • Archaeopterygidae
    • Archaeopteryx (Late Jurassic)
    • Wellnhoferia (Late Jurassic) - may be synonym of Archaeopteryx

Omnivoropterygiformes

  • Omnivoropterygidae
    • Omnivoropteryx (Early Cretaceous)
    • Sapeornis (Early Cretaceous)

†Basal Pygostylia

  The earliest birds with a modern pygostyle: a reduction and fusion of the tail vertebrae; possibly a paraphyletic group. Two types of pygostyle are known, a rod-shaped one found in Confuciusornithidae, Enantiornithes and some non-avian theropods such as Nomingia, and a plowshare-shaped one, only known in the lineage leading to modern birds. It is not certain that the pygostyles found in birds are indeed synapomorphies.[4]

  • Placement unresolved
    • Longipteryx (Early Cretaceous) - (eu)enantiornithine?
    • Abavornis (Late Cretaceous) - (eu)enantiornithine?
    • Catenoleimus (Late Cretaceous) - enantiornithine?
    • Explorornis (Late Cretaceous) - (eu)enantiornithine?
    • Incolornis (Late Cretaceous) - (eu)enantiornithine?
  • Confuciusornithidae
    • Changchengornis (Early Cretaceous)
    • Confuciusornis (Early Cretaceous)
    • Jinzhouornis (Early Cretaceous) - may be synonym of Confuciusornis
    • "Proornis" (Early Cretaceous) - tentatively placed here; a nomen nudum

†Enantiornithes

"Opposite Birds" due to the shape of their scapula/coracoid bones; an extinct Mesozoic sub-class. Together with the Ornithurae (which includes modern birds), they form the Ornithothoraces: birds adapted to flight in the modern way (though the expression of individual traits differs). For example, their shoulder blades are modified to permit raising their wings far above their backs; although as noted above, the shape of the individual shoulder bones differs markedly among ornithothoracine groups, and considering also the different pygostyles of Enantiornithes and Ornithurae, it may well be that the Ornithothoraces are not monophyletic.  

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Aberratiodontus (Early Cretaceous) - own family?
    • Boluochia (Early Cretaceous) - cathayornithid?
    • Concornis (Early Cretaceous)- cathayornithid? enantiornithiform?
    • Cuspirostrisornis (Early Cretaceous)
    • Dapingfangornis (Early Cretaceous)
    • Eoalulavis (Early Cretaceous)
    • Eoenantiornis (Early Cretaceous)
    • Largirostrornis (Early Cretaceous)
    • "Liaoxiornis" (Early Cretaceous) - a nomen dubium
    • Longchengornis (Early Cretaceous)
    • Longirostravis (Early Cretaceous)
    • Hebeiornis (Yixian Early Cretaceous of Hebei, China) - possibly a nomen nudum; if valid, includes Vescornis
    • Enantiornithes gen. et spp. indet. (Early Cretaceous)
    • Elsornis (Late Cretaceous)
    • Halimornis (Late Cretaceous)
    • Kuszholia (Late Cretaceous) - own family?
    • Lectavis (Late Cretaceous) - enantiornithiform?
    • Lenesornis (Late Cretaceous)
    • Gobipteryx (Late Cretaceous) - enantiornithiform? own family?
    • Gurilynia (Late Cretaceous) - enantiornithiform?
    • Neuquenornis (Late Cretaceous) - cathayornithid? avisaurid?
    • Yungavolucris (Late Cretaceous) - enantiornithiform (avisaurid)?
    • Enantiornithes gen. et spp. indet. (Late Cretaceous)
  • "Cathayornithidae" (disputed)
    • Sinornis/Cathayornis (Early Cretaceous)
    • Eocathayornis (Early Cretaceous)
  • Iberomesornithidae (disputed)
    • Iberomesornis (Early Cretaceous)
    • Noguerornis (Early Cretaceous)
  • Alexornithidae (disputed)
    • Alexornis (Late Cretaceous)
    • Kizylkumavis (Late Cretaceous)
    • Sazavis (Late Cretaceous)

Enantiornithiformes

  • Enantiornithidae (disputed)
    • Enantiornis (Late Cretaceous)
  • Avisauridae
    • Avisaurus (Late Cretaceous)
    • Soroavisaurus (Late Cretaceous)

†Basal Ornithurae[5]

Also called "basal Ornithuromorpha"[6]. Essentially modern birds, except many still possess a few primitive features such as teeth or wing claws. These have the plowshare-shaped pygostyle and proper tail as seen in most living birds. The taxonomy of this group is confusing; the name "Ornithurae" was first proposed by Ernst Haeckel in 1866 and has been revised in meaning several times since. On the other hand, the Ornithuromorpha may be a junior synonym of Ornithothoraces (or even Pygostylia).[1]

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Gansus (Early Cretaceous) - basal
    • Archaeorhynchus (Early Cretaceous) - basal?
    • Apsaravis (Late Cretaceous) - ambiortid?
    • Limenavis (Late Cretaceous) - neornithine (paleognath)?
    • "cf. Parahesperornis" (Nemegt Late Cretaceous of Tsagaan Kushu, Mongolia) - hesperornithiform?
    • Ornithurae gen. et sp. indet. RBCM.EH2005.003.0001 (Northumberland Late Cretaceous of Hornby Island, Canada)
    • Ornithurae gen. et sp. indet. TMP 98.68.145 (Dinosur Park Late Cretaceous of Iddesleigh, Canada) - hesperornithiform?
    • Carinatae gen. et sp. indet. NHMM/RD 271 (Maastricht Late Cretaceous, CBR-Romontbos Quarry, Belgium) - ichthyornithine?
  • Ambiortidae
    • Ambiortus (Early Cretaceous)

Yanornithiformes

  • Songlingornithidae
    • Songlingornis (Early Cretaceous)
    • Yanornis (Early Cretaceous)
    • Yixianornis (Early Cretaceous)

†Hesperornithes

  Large, toothed, loon-like diving birds.

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Asiahesperornis (Late Cretaceous) - hesperornithid?
    • Judinornis (Late Cretaceous)
    • Pasquiaornis (Late Cretaceous)
    • Hesperornithiformes gen. et sp. indet. TMP 89.81.12 (Late Cretaceous)
    • Hesperornithiformes gen. et sp. indet. "Kushmurun, Kazakhstan" (Late Cretaceous)
  • Enaliornithidae
    • Enaliornis (Early Cretaceous)
  • Baptornithidae
    • Baptornis (Late Cretaceous) - includes Parascaniornis
  • Hesperornithidae
    • Hesperornis (Late Cretaceous)
    • Parahesperornis (Late Cretaceous)
    • Canadaga (Late Cretaceous)
    • Coniornis (Late Cretaceous)

†Ichthyornithes

Toothed birds similar to modern gulls.

  • Ichthyornidae
    • Ichthyornis (Late Cretaceous)

Neornithes

The subclass that contains all modern birds.

Unresolved and basal forms
These modern birds are known from remains that cannot be placed in relation to any one modern group and are neither autapomorphic enough to assign them to own orders. Especially the Late Cretaceous/early Paleogene taxa are probably basal to several modern orders.

  • Gallornis (Early -? Late Cretaceous) - phoenicopteriform, anseriform or galliform
  • Ceramornis (Late Cretaceous) - charadriiform?
  • "Cimolopteryx" (Late Cretaceous) - charadriiform?
  • Palintropus (Late Cretaceous) - quercymegapodiid or charadriform
  • "Presbyornithidae" gen. et sp. indet. (Barun Goyot Late Cretaceous of Udan Sayr, Mongolia) - anseriform (presbyornithid)?
  • Teviornis (Late Cretaceous) - presbyornithid?
  • Torotix (Late Cretaceous) - pelecaniform, charadriiform, procellariform or phoeniopteriform
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis "Kurochkin 1995" (Nemegt Late Cretaceous of S Mongolia) - phalacrocoracid?
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis AMNH 25272 (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous of Converse County, USA) - phalacrocoracid?
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis PVPH 237 (Portezuelo Late Cretaceous of Sierra de Portezuelo, Argentina) - galliform?
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis UCMP 117598 (Hell Creek Late Cretaceous of Bug Creek West, USA)
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis UCMP 117599 (Hell Creek Late Cretaceous of Bug Creek West, USA) - anseriform?
  • Lonchodytes (Late Cretaceous/?Early Palaeocene) - gaviiform/pelecaniform? procellariiform?
  • "Lonchodytes" pterygius (Late Cretaceous/?Early Palaeocene) - charadriiform?
  • Novacaesareala (Late Cretaceous/Early Palaeocene) - related to Torotix?
  • "Palaeotringa" vetus (Lance Late Cretaceous of Wyoming - Hornerstown Late Cretaceous/?Early Palaeocene of New Jersey, USA) - gruiform? anseriform (presbyornithid)?
  • Volgavis (Early Palaeocene of Volgograd, Russia) - charadriiform?
  • Qinornis (Fangou Early/Middle Paleocene of Luonan County, China)
  • Eupterornis (Paleocene of Cernay, France) - charadriiform (larid?)? gaviiform?
  • Argilliornis (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - procellariiform (pelagornithid?)
  • Argillipes (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - galliform?
  • Coturnipes (Early Eocene of England, and Virginia, USA?) - galliform, falconiform?
  • Fluviatitavis (Early Eocene of Silveirinha, Portugal) - charadriiform?
  • Neanis (Early Eocene) - primobucconid, piciform?
  • Neptuniavis (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - pelagornithid or procellariid
  • Onychopteryx (Early Eocene of Argentina) - falconid? A nomen dubium
  • Paracathartes (Early Eocene of WC USA) - lithornithiform?
  • Percolinus (London Clay Early Eocene of England) - galliform?
  • "Precursor" (Early Eocene) - several species? psittaciform (pseudasturid or psittacid) + charadriiform (glareolid)?
  • Pulchrapollia (Early Eocene) - includes "Primobucco" olsoni - psittaciform (pseudasturid or psittacid)?
  • Vastanavis (Early Eocene of Vastan, India) - gruiform (otidid)?
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis USNM 496384 (Nanjemoy Early Eocene of Virginia, USA) - parvicuculid? aegithalornithid?
  • †"Green River Palaeognath" USNM 336103 (Green River Early/Middle Eocene)
  • Palaeopsittacus (Early - Middle Eocene of NW Europe) - caprimulgiform (podargid?) or quercypsittid?
  • Eocathartes (Middle Eocene of Germany) - cathartid?
  • Hassiavis (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany) - archaeotrogonid, piciform?
  • Protocypselomorphus (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany) - caprimulgiform, apodiform or ancestral to both
  • Pumiliornis (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
  • Eobalearica (Ferghana Late? Eocene of Ferghana, Uzbekistan) - gruiform (gruid)?
  • Ludiortyx (Late Eocene) - rallid, quercymegapodid? Includes "Tringa" hoffmanni, "Palaeortyx" blanchardi, "P." hoffmanni
  • Minggangia (Late Eocene of China) - rallid, threskiornithid?
  • Petropluvialis (Late Eocene of England) - may be same as Palaeopapia; anseriform?
  • "Phasianus" alfhildae (Washakie B Late Eocene of Haystack Butte, USA) - gruiform, ciconiiform, phoenicopteriform?
  • Talantatos (Late Eocene of Paris Bain, France) - gruiform?
  • Telecrex (Irdin Manha Late Eocene of Shara Murun, Mongolia) - meleagrid or gruiform (rallid?)
  • "Falco" falconellus (or falconella; Eocene of Wyoming, USA) - falconiform (falconid)?
  • "Colymboides" anglicus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of Hordwell, England) - gaviiform? previously included in Palaeopapia eous
  • Filholornis (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of France) - musophagid? cracid?
  • Agnopterus (Late Eocene - Late Oligocene of Europe) - phoenicopteriform or anseriform, includes "Cygnopterus" lambrechti
  • Plesiocathartes (Late Eocene -? Early Miocene of SW Europe) - cathartid, leptosomid?
  • Botauroides (Eocene of Wyoming, USA)- coliiform?
  • Aminornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Rio Deseado, Argentina) - gruiform (aramid)?
  • Ciconiopsis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Patagonia, Argentina) - ciconiid?
  • Climacarthrus (Deseado Early Oligocene of Argentina) - accipitrid? A nomen dubium
  • Cruschedula (Deseado Early Oligocene of Golfo San Jorge, Argentina) - accipitrid? A nomen dubium
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis BMNH PAL 4989 (Hampstead Early Oligocene of Isle of Wight, England) - formerly "Ptenornis" and included in Headonornis; anseriform?
  • Loncornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Rio Deseado, Argentina) - gruiform (aramid)?
  • Loxornis - anatid? (Deseado Early Oligocene of Argentina)
  • Manu (Early Oligocene) - procellariiform (diomedeid)?
  • Palaeocrex (Early Oligocene of Trigonias Quarry, USA) - rallid?
  • Palaeopapia (Hampstead Early Oligocene of Isle of Wight, England) - anseriform?
  • Paracygnopterus (Early Oligocene of Belgium and England) - anatid?
  • "Pararallus" hassenkampi (Sieblos Dysodil Early Oligocene of Sieblos, Germany)
  • Riacama (Deseado Early Oligocene of Argentina) - gruiform?
  • Smiliornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Argentina) - gruiform?
  • Teracus (Early Oligocene of France)
  • Teleornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Argentina) - anatid?
  • Pseudolarus (Deseado Early Oligocene - Miocene of Argentina) - gruiform?
  • "Anas" creccoides (Early-mid Oligocene of Belgium) - anseriform?
  • Limicorallus (Indricotherium middle Oligocene of Chelkar-Teniz, Kazakhstan) - anatid?
  • Megagallinula (Indricotherium middle Oligocene of Chelkar-Teniz, Kazakhstan)
  • "Palaeorallus" alienus (middle Oligocene of Tatal-Gol, Mongolia) - galliform?
  • Gnotornis (Brule Late Oligocene of Shannon County, USA) - gruiform (aramid)?
  • Tiliornis (Late? Oligocene of Argentina) - phoenicopteriform? A nomen dubium
  • Gaviella (Oligocene? of Wyoming, USA) - gaviiform? plotopterid?
  • "Propelargus" olseni (Hawthorne Early Miocene of Tallahassee, USA) - ciconiiform?
  • †Neornithes incerta sedis MNHN SA 1259-1263 (Early/Middle Miocene of Sansan, France) - passeriform?
  • Anisolornis (Santa Cruz Middle Miocene of Karaihen, Argentina) - gruiform, galliform, tinamiform?
  • "Ardea" perplexa (Middle Miocene of Sansan, France) - ardeid? strigiform?
  • "Cygnus herrenthalsi" (Middle Miocene of Belgium)
  • "Ardea" aureliensis (Late Miocene of France) - ardeid?
  • Eoneornis (Miocene of Argentina)- anatid? A nomen dubium
  • Eutelornis (Miocene of Argentina) - anatid?
  • Protibis (Miocene of Argentina) - ciconiiform (threskiornithid)?
  • "Limnatornis" paludicola (Miocene of France) - coliid? phoeniculid?
  • "Picus" gaudryi (Miocene of France) - piciform?
  • "Ardea" lignitum (Late Pliocene of Germany) - ardeid? strigid (genus Bubo)?
  • "Gavia" portisi (Late Pliocene of Orciano Pisano, Italy) - gaviiform? A nomen dubium
  • Bathoceleus (Pliocene of New Providence, Bahamas) - picid?
  • Homalopus - piciform?
  • Juncitarsus - phoenicopteriform?
  • Kashinia - phoenicopteriform?
  • "Liptornis" - pelecaniform (pelecanid)? A nomen dubium
  • Procuculus
  • Pseudocrypturus - lithornithiform?
  • Archaeotrogonidae - basal Cypselomorphae?
    • Archaeotrogonidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Eocene)
    • Archaeotrogon (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene)
  • Cladornithidae - pelecaniform?
    • Cladornis (Deseado Early Oligocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
  • Eleutherornithidae
    • Eleutherornis
    • Proceriavis
  • Eocypselidae - apodiform (hemiprocnid?)? caprimulgiform? basal Cypselomorphae?
    • Eocypselus (Late Paleocene ?- Early Eocene of NC Europe)
  • Eremopezidae - ratites?
    • Eremopezus (Late Eocene of North Africa) - includes Stromeria
  • Foratidae - cuculiform?
    • Foro (Early Eocene)
  • Fluvioviridavidae
    • Fluvioviridavis (Green River Early Eocene of N America)
    • Eurofluvioviridavis (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
  • Gracilitarsidae
    • Eutreptodactylus (Late Paleocene of Brazil) - a nomen dubium
    • Gracilitarsus (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
  • Halcyornithidae - psittaciform (pseudasturid?)
    • Halcyornis
  • Laornithidae - charadriiform? gruiform?
    • Laornis (Late Cretaceous?)
  • Messelasturidae - accipitrid? basal to Strigiformes?
    • Tynskya (Early Eocene of N America and England)
    • Messelastur (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
  • Palaeospizidae - passeriform? coraciiform?
    • Palaeospiza (Late Eocene of Florissant Fossil Beds, USA)
  • Parvicuculidae - cypselomorph, cuculiform, Primobucconidae?
    • Parvicuculus (Early Eocene of NW Europe)
  • Primoscenidae - piciform? synonym of Zygodactylidae?
    • Primoscens
    • Primozygodactylus
  • Remiornithidae - palaeognath?
    • Remiornis
  • Sylphornithidae
    • Oligosylphe (Borgloon Early Oligocene of Hoogbutsel, Belgium)
    • Sylphornis
  • Tytthostonygidae - procellariiform, pelecaniform?
    • Tytthostonyx (Late Cretaceous/Early Palaeocene)
  • Zygodactylidae - piciform?
    • Zygodactylus
  • "Graculavidae" - a paraphyletic form taxon, the "transitional shorebirds"
    • Graculavus (Late Cretaceous -? Early Palaeocene) - charadriiform?
    • Palaeotringa (Late Cretaceous/Early Palaeocene) - charadriiform?
    • Telmatornis (Late Cretaceous?) - charadriiform? gruiform? podicipediform?
    • Zhylgaia (Early Paleocene) - presbyornithid?
    • Scaniornis (Early/Middle Paleocene) - phoenicopteriform?
    • Dakotornis (Paleocene of North Dakota, USA)
    • Placement unresolved
      • "Graculavidae" gen. et sp. indet. (Gloucester County, USA)

Struthioniformes

Ostrich and related ratites.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Diogenornis (Late Paleocene) - rheid?
    • Opisthodactylus (Miocene) - rheid?
  • Casuariidae - Emus and cassowaries
    • Emuarius (Late Oligocene - Late Miocene) - formerly Dromaius
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Dromaius (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Casuarius
  • Rheidae - Rheas
    • Heterorhea (Pliocene)
    • Hinasuri
  • Aepyornithidae - Elephant Birds
    • Mullerornis
  • Struthionidae - Ostriches
    • Palaeotis (Middle Eocene) - includes Palaeogrus geiseltalensis
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Struthio (Early Miocene - Recent)

†Lithornithiformes

  • Lithornithidae - lithornithids
    • Promusophaga (Early Eocene)
    • Lithornis (Early Eocene)

Tinamiformes

  • Tinamidae - Tinamous
    • Querandiornis (Ensenada Early/Middle Pleistocene of Argentina)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Tinamidae gen. et sp. indet. MACN-SC Fleagle Collection (Early - Middle Miocene of S Argentina) - at least 2 species
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Eudromia sp. (Late Miocene of La Pampa Province, Argentina)
      • Eudromia olsoni (Late Pliocene of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina)
      • Nothura parvula (Late Pliocene of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) - formerly Cayeornis
      • Eudromia intermedia (Pliocene of Argentina) - formerly Tinamisornis
      • Nothura paludosa (Pleistocene of Argentina)

Anseriformes

  The group that includes modern ducks and geese.

  • Basal and unresolved forms
    • Vegavis (Late Cretaceous) - closer to Presbyornithidae and Anatidae than to Anseranatidae
    • Anatalavis (Late Cretaceous/Early Paleocene - Early Eocene) - anseranatid or basal. Includes "Telmatornis" rex.
    • Proherodius (Early Eocene) - presbyornithid?
    • Paranyroca (Early Miocene) - Anatidae or own family?
  • Anhimidae - Screamers
    • Chaunoides
  • Dromornithidae - The Australian mihirungs or "demon ducks".
    • Dromornis (Late Miocene - Pliocene)
    • Bullockornis (Middle Miocene)
    • Barawertornis
    • Ilbandornis
  • Anseranatidae - magpie-geese
    • Anseranatidae gen. et sp. nov (Late Oligocene)
  • Presbyornithidae
    • Presbyornis (Paleocene - Early Oligocene)
    • Headonornis - only BMNH PAL 30325 belongs to this species, may belong to Presbyornis.
    • Telmabates
  • Anatidae - Ducks, geese and swans
    • Eonessa (Eocene)
    • Cygnavus (Early Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Romainvillia (Early Oligocene? - Late Eocene)
    • Cygnopterus (middle Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Guguschia (Oligocene)
    • Mionetta (Late Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Megalodytes (Middle Miocene)
    • Afrocygnus (Late Miocene? - Early Pliocene)
    • Presbychen (Late Miocene)
    • Paracygnus (Late Pliocene)
    • Anabernicula (Late Pliocene? - Late Pleistocene)
    • Eremochen (Pliocene)
    • Brantadorna (Middle Pleistocene)
    • Nannonetta (Late Pleistocene of Peru)
    • Aldabranas (Pleistocene)
    • Archaeocygnus (Pleistocene)
    • Dendrochen
    • Sinanas
    • Wasonaka
    • Placement unresolved
      • Anatidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene)
      • "cf. Megalodytes" (Middle Miocene)
      • "Chenopis" nanus - at least 2 taxa (Pleistocene)
    • Extant and recently extinct genera present in the fossil record
      • Somateria (middle Oligocene? - Recent)
      • Bucephala (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Clangula (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Cygnus (Late Miocene - Recent)
      • Histrionicus (Middle Miocene - Recent) - includes Ocyplonessa
      • Mergus (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Anas (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Anser (Late Miocene - Recent) - includes Heterochen
      • Branta (Late Miocene - Recent)
      • Oxyura (Late Plioceen/Early Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Aythya (Early Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Chendytes (Early Pleistocene - Holocene)
      • Lophodytes (Late Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Neochen (Late Pleistocene - Recent)

Galliformes

The group that includes modern chickens and quails.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Austinornis (Austin Chalk Late Cretaceous of Fort McKinney, USA) - formerly Graculavus/Ichthyornis lentus
    • Procrax (Middle Eocene? - Early Oligocene) - cracid? gallinuloidid?
    • Palaeortyx (Middle Eocene - Early Miocene) - phasianid or odontophorid
    • Palaeonossax (Brule Late Oligocene of South Dakota, USA) - cracid?
    • Taoperdix (Late Oligocene)
    • Archaealectrornis (Oligocene) - phasianid?
    • †Galliformes gen. et sp. indet. MCZ 342506 (Oligocene) - formerly in Gallinuloides; phasianid?
    • Archaeophasianus (Oligocene? - Late Miocene) - tetraonid or phasianid
    • Palaealectoris (Agate Fossil Beds Early Miocene of Sioux County, USA) - tetraonid?
    • "Cyrtonyx" tedfordi (Barstow Late Miocene of Barstow, USA)
    • Paleophasianus - tetraonid or cracid
  • Gallinuloididae
    • Gallinuloides (Green River Early/Middle Eocene of Wyoming, USA)
    • Paraortygoides (London Clay Early Eocene of Walton-on-the-Naze, England - Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany)
  • Paraortygidae
    • Pirortyx
    • Paraortyx
  • Quercymegapodiidae
    • Quercymegapodius (Middle Eocene - Early Oligocene)
    • Taubacrex (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of Brazil)
    • Ameripodius (Late Oligocene - Early Miocene of Brazil and France)
  • Megapodidae - Megapodes
    • Ngawupodius
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Leipoa gallinacea - formerly Progura
  • Cracidae - Guans and Curassows
    • Boreortalis (Early Miocene) - may be same as Ortalis
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Ortalis (Early Miocene - Recent)
  • Phasianidae - Pheasants, quails, partridges and grouse
    • Amitabha (Bridger Middle Eocene of Forbidden City, USA)
    • Schaubortyx (Middle Eocene - Early Oligocene)
    • Chauvireria (Late Pliocene of Varshets, Bulgaria)
    • Palaeocryptonyx (Late Pliocene of SW Europe)
    • Miogallus
    • Miophasianus
    • Palaeoperdix
    • Pliogallus
    • Plioperdix
    • Placement unresolved
      • "Tympanuchus" stirtoni (Early Miocene)
      • Tetraoninae gen. et sp. indet. (Sajóvölgyi Middle Miocene of Mátraszõlõs, Hungary)
      • "Tympanuchus" lulli (Pleistocene? of New Jersey)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Coturnix (Late Oligocene - Recent)
      • Gallus (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Pavo (Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Francolinus (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Perdix (Early Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Dendragapus (Late Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Alectoris
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Lagopus atavus (Late Pliocene)
      • Lagopus balcanicus (Late Pliocene of Varshets, Bulgaria)
      • Tetrao partium (Late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene)
      • Tetrao praeurogallus (Early Pleistocene)
      • Tetrao conjugens
      • Tetrao macropus
      • Tetrao rhodopensis
      • Bonasa praebonasia
      • Prehistoric subspecies of extant species
        • Lagopus lagopus noaillensis
        • Lagopus mutus correzensis
  • Odontophoridae - New World Quails
    • Nanortyx (Cypress Hills Early Oligocene of North Calf Creek, Canada)
    • Miortyx (Rosebud Early Miocene of Flint Hill, USA)
    • Neortyx (Early Pleistocene of Reddick, USA)
    • Placement unresolved
      • †Odontophoridae gen. et sp. indet. KUVP 9393 (White River Early/middle Oligocene of Logan County, USA)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Cyrtonyx cooki (Late Miocene? of Upper Sheep Creek, USA)
      • Callipepla? shotwelli (Middle Pliocene of McKay Reservoir, USA) - formerly Lophortyx
      • Colinus hibbardi (Rexroad Late Pliocene of Rexroad, USA)
      • Colinus sp. (Late Pliocene of Benson, USA)
      • Colinus suilium (Early Pleistocene of SE USA)
      • Dendrortyx? sp. (Late Pleistocene of San Josecito Cavern, Mexico)
  • Meleagrididae - Turkeys
    • Rhegminornis (Early Miocene of Bell, USA)
    • Proagriocharis (Kimball Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lime Creek, USA)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Meleagridae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene of Westmoreland County, USA)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Meleagris (Early Pliocene - Recent)

Charadriiformes

Gulls, auks, shorebirds

  • Basal and unresolved taxa
    • †Charadriiformes gen. et sp. indet. VI 9901 (Late Cretaceous) - burhinid? basal?
    • "Morsoravis" (Late Paleocene/Early Eocene) - a nomen nudum?
    • Jiliniornis (Middle Eocene) - charadriid?
    • Boutersemia (Early Oligocene) - glareolid?
    • Turnipax (Early Oligocene) - turnicid?
    • "Larus" desnoyersii (Early Miocene) - larid? stercorariid?
    • "Larus" pristinus (Early Miocene) - larid?
    • †Charadriiformes gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene)
    • "Totanus" teruelensis (Late Miocene of Los Mansuetos, Spain) - scolopacid? larid?
  • Scolopacidae - Waders and snipes
    • Paractitis (Early Oligocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Scolopacidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle - Late Miocene)
      • Scolopacidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Pliocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Limosa (Late Eocene? - Recent)
      • Tringa (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene? - Recent) - includes Totanus
      • Gallinago (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Scolopax (Early/Middle Pliocene? - Recent)
      • Phalaropus (Middle Pliocene - Recent)
      • Actitis (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Numenius (Late Pleistocene - Recent) - includes Palnumenius
  • Jacanidae - Jacanas
    • Nupharanassa (Early Oligocene)
    • Janipes
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Jacana farrandi
  • Laridae - Gulls
    • †Laridae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Oligocene)
    • Gaviota (Late Miocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record'
      • Larus (Late Oligocene?/Early Miocene - Recent)
  • Alcidae - Auks
    • Hydrotherikornis (Late Eocene of Oregon, USA)
    • Petralca (Early ?- Late Oligocene of Austria)
    • Miocepphus (Middle Miocene of CE USA)
    • Alcodes (Late Miocene of Orange County, USA)
    • Praemancalla (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene of Orange County, USA)
    • Mancalla (Late Miocene - Early Pleistocene of W North America)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Cepphus (Late Miocene - Recent)
      • Cerorhinca (Late Miocene - Recent)
      • Uria (Late Miocene - Recent)
      • Aethia (Late Miocene - Recent)
      • Alca (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Synthliboramphus (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Fratercula (Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Pinguinus (Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Brachyramphus (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Ptychoramphus (Late Pliocene - Recent)
  • Stercorariidae - Skuas and jaegers
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Stercorarius sp. (Middle Miocene)
      • Stercorarius shufeldti (Fossil Lake Middle Pleistocene of WC USA)
      • Prehistoric subspecies of extant species
        • Stercorarius pomarinus philippi
  • Glareolidae - Pratincoles
    • Paractiornis (Agate Fossil Beds Early Miocene of Sioux County, USA)
    • Mioglareola
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Glareola neogena
  • Burhinidae - Thick-knees
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Burhinus lucorum (Early Miocene)
      • Burhinus aquilonaris
      • Burhinus sp. (Cuba, West Indies)
      • Burhinus sp. (Late Pleistocene of Las Higueruelas, Spain)
      • Prehistoric subspecies of extant species
        • Burhinus bistriatus nanus (Bahamas, West Indies)
  • Charadriidae - Plovers
    • Viator
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Vanellus edmundi - formerly Belanopteryx
      • Vanellus downsi - formerly Belanopteryx
      • Oreopholus orcesi
  • Recurvirostridae - Avocets
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Himantopus (Late Miocene - Recent)
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Recurvirostra sanctaeneboulae

†Gastornithiformes

  The diatrymas, a group of huge flightless Paleogene birds of unclear affinities. Traditionally placed within the Gruiformes, they are usually considered a distinct order nowadays and appear closer to the Anseriformes.

  • Gastornithidae
    • Gastornis (Late Paleocene - Middle Eocene of W Europe, and North America) - includes Diatryma
    • Gasthornithidae gen. et sp. indet. PU 13258 (Early Eocene of Parly County, USA)
    • "Diatryma" corei (Middle Eocene of Lissieu, France)
    • Omorhamphus
    • Zhongyuanus

Gruiformes

The group that includes modern rails and cranes. Probably paraphyletic.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Propelargus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene) - cariamid or idiornithid
    • Rupelrallus (Early Oligocene) - rallid? parvigruid?
    • Badistornis (middle Oligocene) - aramid?
    • Probalearica (Late Oligocene? - Middle Pliocene) - gruid? A nomen dubium?
    • Aramornis (Middle Miocene) - gruid? aramid?
    • Euryonotus (Pleistocene) - rallid?
    • Occitaniavis - cariamid or idiornithid, includes Geranopsis elatus
  • Parvigruidae
    • Parvigrus (Early Oligocene of Pichovet, France)
  • Songziidae - possibly a nomen nudum
    • Songzia (Eocene) - possibly a nomen nudum
  • Rallidae - Rails
    • Eocrex (Early Eocene)
    • Palaeorallus (Early Eocene)
    • Parvirallus (Early - Middle Eocene)
    • Aletornis (Middle Eocene) - includes Protogrus
    • Fulicaletornis (Middle Eocene)
    • Latipons (Middle Eocene)
    • Ibidopsis (Late Eocene)
    • Quercyrallus (Late Eocene -? Late Oligocene)
    • Belgirallus (Early Oligocene)
    • Rallicrex (Middle/Late Oligocene)
    • Palaeoaramides (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene - Late Miocene)
    • Paraortygometra (Late Oligocene/?Early Miocene)
    • Pararallus (Late Oligocene? - Late Miocene) - possibly belongs into Palaeoaramides
    • Miofulica (Middle Miocene)
    • Youngornis (Middle Miocene)
    • Miorallus (Middle - Late Miocene)
    • Creccoides (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene)
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene)
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene)
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP V55013/-14; UMMP V55012/V45750/V45746 (Late Pliocene)
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP V29080 (Late Pliocene)
      • Rallidae gen. et sp. indet. (Bermuda, West Atlantic)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Rallus (Middle Miocene - Recent) - includes Epirallus
      • Porzana (Middle? Miocene - Recent)
      • Fulica (Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Gallinula (Late Pliocene - Recent)
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Coturnicops avita (Glenns Ferry Late Pliocene of Hagerman, USA)
      • Laterallus insignis (Rexroad Late Pliocene of Rexroad, USA)
      • Laterallus sp. (Late Pliocene of Macasphalt Shell Pit, USA)
  • Eogruidae
    • Eogrus (Irdin Manha Middle/Late Eocene - Tung Gur Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Mongolia)
    • Sonogrus (Ergilin Dzo Leate Eocene/Early Oligocene of Khor Dzan, Mongolia)
  • Ergilornithidae
    • Ergilornis (Early/middle Oligocene of Ergil-Obo, Mongolia)
    • Proergilornis (Early/middle Oligocene of Ergil-Obo, Mongolia)
    • Amphipelargus
    • Urmiornis - may belong into Amphipelargus
  • Gruidae - Cranes
    • Palaeogrus (Middle Eocene of Germany and Italy - Middle Miocene of France)
    • Geranopsis (Hordwell Late Eocene - Early Oligocene of England)
    • Camusia (Late Miocene of Menorca, Mediterranean)
    • Pliogrus (Early Pliocene of Eppelsheim, Germany)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Gruidae gen. et sp. indet. - formerly Grus conferta (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Contra Costa County, USA)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Balearica (Early Miocene - Recent) - includes Basityto and Grus excelsa/Ornithocnemis excelsus
      • Grus (Middle/Late Miocene - Recent)
  • Messelornithidae - Messel-birds
    • Itardiornis
    • Messelornis
  • Salmilidae
    • Salmila
  • Ameghinornithidae
    • Strigogyps - probably includes Aenigmavis and Ameghinornis
  • Geranoididae
    • Eogeranoides (Willwood Early Eocene of Foster Gulch, USA)
    • Geranoides (Willwood Early Eocene of South Elk Creek, USA)
    • Palaeophasianus (Willwood Early Eocene of Bighorn County, USA)
    • Paragrus (Early Eocene of WC USA)
    • Geranodornis (Bridger Middle Eocene of Church Buttes, USA)
  • Bathornithidae
    • Eutreptornis (Uinta Late Eocene of Ouray Agency, USA)
    • Neocathartes (Late Eocene)
    • Palaeogyps (Early Oligocene of WC North America)
    • Bathornithidae gen. nov. (Early - middle Oligocene of C USA) - formerly Bathornis celeripes and B. cursor
    • Paracrax (Early/middle Oligocene of Gerry's Ranch, USA - Brule Late Oligocene of South Dakota, USA) - includes Oligocorax/Phalacrocorax mediterraneus
    • Bathornis (Early Oligocene - Early Miocene of C USA)

 

  • Idiornithidae
    • Idiornis (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany ?- Quercy Phosphorites middle Oligocene of Quercy, France)
    • Gypsornis (Montmartre Late Eocene of Montmartre, France)
    • Elaphrocnemus (Quercy Phosphorites Late Eocene ?-middle Oligocene of Quercy, France)
    • Oblitavis
  • Phorusrhacidae - Terror birds
    • Paleopsilopterus (Middle Paleocene)
    • Andrewsornis (Middle - Late Oligocene)
    • Physornis (Middle - Late Oligocene)
    • Psilopterus (middle Oligocene - Late Miocenea)
    • Paraphysornis (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene)
    • Brontornis (Early - Middle Miocene)
    • Patagornis (Early - Middle Miocenea)
    • Phorusrhacos (Early - Middle Miocene)
    • Andalgalornis (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene)
    • Devincenzia (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene)
    • Procariama (Late Miocene - Early Pliocene)
    • Mesembriornis (Late Miocene - Late Pliocene)
    • Titanis (Early - Late Pliocene)
  • Cariamidae - Seriemas
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Chunga incerta
  • Otididae - Bustards
    • Gryzaja
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Otis khosatzkii (Late Pliocene of Varshets, Bulgaria)
      • Chlamydotis affinis

Phoenicopteriformes

  • Placement unresolved
    • Phoeniconotius (Etadunna Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of Lake Pitikanta, Australia)
  • Palaelodidae - Swimming-flamingos
    • Adelalopus (Borgloon Early Oligocene of Hoogbutsel, Belgium)
    • Palaelodus (middle Oligocene -? Middle Pleistocene)
    • Megapaloelodus (Late Oligocene - Early Pliocene)
  • Phoenicopteridae - Flamingos
    • Elornis (Middle? Eocene - Early Oligocene) - includes Actiornis
    • Placement unresolved
      • Phoenicopteridae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle? - Late Miocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Phoenicopterus (middle Oligocene - Recent)

Podicipediformes

  • Podicipedidae - Grebes
    • Miobaptus (Early Miocene)
    • Thiornis (Late Miocene -? Early Pliocene)
    • Pliolymbus (Late Pliocene - Early? Pleistocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Podicipedidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Pliocene) - formerly included in Podiceps parvus
      • Podicipedidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP 49592, 52261, 51848, 52276, KUVP 4484 (Late Pliocene)
      • Podicipedidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Podiceps (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene - Recent)
      • Aechmophorus (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Podilymbus (Late Pliocene - Recent)

Ciconiiformes

The diverse group that includes storks, herons and New World vultures.

  • Placement unresolved
    • "Teratornis" olsoni
  • Ardeidae - Herons
    • Proardea (Late Eocene ?- Late Oligocene)
    • Xenerodiops (Early Oligocene)
    • Zeltornis (Early Miocene)
    • Ardeagradis
    • Calcardea
    • Proardeola - possibly same as Proardea
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Nycticorax (Early Oligocene - Recent)
      • Ardea (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Egretta (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Butorides (Early Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Botaurus
  • Scopidae - Hammerkop
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Scopus xenopus
  • Threskiornithidae - Ibises
    • †Threskiornithidae gen. et sp. indet. NMMP-KU 1301 (Pondaung Middle Eocene of Paukkaung, Myanmar) - Threskiornithidae?
    • Rhynchaeites
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Plegadis paganus (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of France) - formerly Eudocimus
      • Plegadis gracilis (Late Pliocene of WC USA)
      • Plegadis pharangites (Late Pliocene of WC USA)
      • Theristicus wetmorei
      • Eudocimus leiseyi
      • Eudocimus ?peruvianus
      • Eudocimus sp. (Florida)
  • Teratornithidae - Teratorns
    • Argentavis (Late Miocene)
    • Aiolornis (Early Pliocene - Late Pleistocene)
    • Cathartornis
  • Cathartidae - New World vultures
    • Diatropornis (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene -? middle Oligocene)
    • Phasmagyps (Early Oligocene)
    • Brasilogyps (Late Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Hadrogyps (Middle Miocene)
    • Pliogyps (Late Miocene - Late Pliocene)
    • Perugyps (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
    • Dryornis (Early - Late? Pliocene) - may belong to modern genus Vultur
    • Aizenogyps (Late Pliocene)
    • Breagyps (Late Pleistocene)
    • Geronogyps (Late Pleistocene)
    • Wingegyps (Late Pleistocene)
    • Parasarcoramphus
    • Placement unresolved
      • Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene of Mongolia)
      • Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene of Lee Creek Mine, USA)
      • Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Pliocene of Argentina)
      • Cathartidae gen. et sp. indet. (Cuba)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Sarcoramphus (Middle Pliocene ?- Recent)
      • Gymnogyps (Early Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Vultur (Pliocene - Recent) - distinctiveness disputed
  • Balaenicipitidae - Shoebills
    • Goliathia (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene of Egypt)
    • Paludavis (Late Miocene of Tunisia and Pakistan)
  • Ciconiidae - Storks
    • Palaeoephippiorhynchus (Early Oligocene of Fayyum, Egypt)
    • Grallavis (Early Miocene of Saint-Gérand-le-Puy, France, and Djebel Zelten, Libya) - may be same as
    • Prociconia (Late Pleistocene of Brazil) - may belong to modern genus Jabiru or Ciconia
    • Pelargosteon (Early Pleistocene of Romania)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Ciconiidae gen. et sp. indet. - formerly Cygnus bilinicus (Early Miocene of Břešťany, Czechia)
      • cf. Leptoptilos gen. et sp. indet. - formerly L. siwalicensis (Late Miocene? - Late Pliocene of Siwalik, India)
      • Ciconiidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Pleistocene of San Josecito Cavern, Mexico) - Ciconia or Mycteria
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Ciconia (Early Miocene? - Recent) - includes Xenorhynchus
      • Mycteria (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Ephippiorhynchus (Late Miocene - Recent)
      • Leptoptilos (Late Miocene - Recent) - includes Cryptociconia
      • Jabiru (Early Pliocene - Recent)

Pelecaniformes

The group that includes modern pelicans and cormorants. As presented here paraphyletic; the tropicbird lineage is not part of this group and relationships with Procellariiformes and Sphenisciformes require more research.

  • Basal and unresolved forms
    • "Sula" ronzoni (Early Oligocene of Ronzon, France) - formerly Mergus and Prophalacrocorax
  • Prophaethontidae
    • Prophaethon (Early Eocene)
    • Lithoptila (Late Paleocene of Ouled Abdoun Basin, Morocco)
  • Phaethontidae - Tropicbirds
    • Heliadornis
  • Fregatidae - Frigatebirds
    • Limnofregata (Early Eocene)
  • Sulidae - Gannets and boobies
    • Masillastega (Middle Eocene)
    • Eostega (Middle/Late Eocene)
    • Empheresula (Late Oligocene - Middle Miocene)
    • Microsula (Late Oligocene - Middle Miocene)
    • Sarmatosula (Middle Miocene)
    • Miosula (Late Miocene)
    • Palaeosula (?Early Pliocene)
    • Rhamphastosula (Early Pliocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Sulidae gen. et sp. indet. (Thalberg Late Oligocene of Germany)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Morus (Early Miocene - Recent)
      • Sula (Middle Pliocene - Recent)
  • Phalacrocoracidae - Cormorants and shags
    • Nectornis (Late Oligocene?/Early Miocene of C Europe - Middle Miocene of Bes-Konak, Turkey) - includes Oligocorax miocaenus
    • "Valenticarbo" (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene) - a nomen dubium
    • Placement unresolved
      • "Oligocorax" sp. (Late Oligocene of Enspel, Germany)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Phalacrocorax (Oligocene ?- Recent) - may be several genera. Includes Australocorax, Miocorax, Pliocarbo
  • Plotopteridae - Diving-"boobies"
    • Phocavis
    • Tonsala
    • Copepteryx
    • Plotopterum
  • Protoplotidae
    • Protoplotus (Paleocene? - Middle Eocene of Sumatra)
  • Anhingidae - Darters
    • Meganhinga (Early Miocene)
    • Macranhinga (Middle/Late Miocene -? Early Pliocene)
    • †Anhingidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle/Late Miocene)
    • Giganhinga (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Anhinga (Early Miocene - Recent)
  • Pelagornithidae - Pseudo-tooth Birds
    • Gigantornis (Middle Eocene of Nigeria)
    • Cyphornis (Eocene of Vancouver, Canada)
    • Osteodontornis (Early Oligocene - Pliocene)
    • Pelagornis (Middle Miocene of France)
    • Odontopteryx
    • Caspiodontornis
    • Dasornis
    • Palaeochenoides
    • Pseudodontornis
    • Tympanoneisiotes
    • Placement unresolved
      • ?Pelagornithidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Eocene)
  • Pelecanidae - Pelicans
    • Protopelicanus
    • Miopelecanus
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Pelecanus (Late Pliocene - Recent)

Procellariiformes

The group that includes modern albatrosses, petrels and storm-petrels.

  • Diomedeoididae
    • Rupelornis (Early Oligocene of Belgium)
    • Diomedeoides (Early Oligocene ?-Early Miocene of C Europe and Iran) - includes Frigidafons, may be synonym of Rupelornis
  • Diomedeidae - Albatrosses
    • Murunkus (Middle Eocene)
    • Plotornis (Early - Middle Miocene) - includes "Puffinus" arvernensis
    • Placement unresolved
      • Diomedeidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene of South Carolina)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Diomedea (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Phoebastria (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • Thalassarche (Late Miocene - Recent)
  • Hydrobatidae - Storm-petrels
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Oceanodroma hubbsi (Capistrano Middle/Late Miocene of Orange County, USA)
      • Oceanodroma sp.
      • Pelagodroma sp. 1
      • Pelagodroma sp. 2
  • Procellariidae - Petrels
    • Argyrodyptes (Patagonia Early Miocene of Patagonia, Argentina)
    • Pterodromoides
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Puffinus (Early Oligocene - Recent)
      • Fulmarus (Middle Miocene - Recent)
      • "Pterodroma" (Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Calonectris
      • Pachyptila
      • Procellaria
  • Pelecanoididae - Diving-petrels
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Pelecanoides (Early Pliocene - Recent)

Gaviiformes

  • Gaviidae - Loons
    • Colymboides (Late Eocene - Early Miocene) - includes Hydrornis
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Gavia (Early Miocene - Recent)

Sphenisciformes

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Waimanu (Early - Late Palaeocene)
    • Perudyptes - basal? (Middle Eocene)
    • Sphenisciformes gen. et sp. indet. CADIC P 21 (Middle Eocene)
  • Spheniscidae - Penguins
    • Crossvallia (Late Paleocene)
    • Anthropornis (Middle Eocene ?- Early Oligocene)
    • Archaeospheniscus (Middle/Late Eocene - Late Oligocene)
    • Delphinornis (Middle/Late Eocene ?- Early Oligocene)
    • Palaeeudyptes (Middle/Late Eocene - Late Oligocene)
    • Icadyptes (Late Eocene)
    • Pachydyptes (Late Eocene)
    • Marambiornis (Late Eocene -? Early Oligocene)
    • Mesetaornis (Late Eocene -? Early Oligocene)
    • Tonniornis (Late Eocene -? Early Oligocene)
    • Wimanornis (Late Eocene -? Early Oligocene)
    • Arthrodytes (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Duntroonornis (Late Oligocene)
    • Korora (Late Oligocene)
    • Platydyptes (Late Oligocene)
    • Chubutodyptes (Early Miocene)
    • Eretiscus (Patagonia Early Miocene)
    • Paraptenodytes (Early - Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
    • Palaeospheniscus (Early? - Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
    • Anthropodyptes (Middle Miocene)
    • Madrynornis (Late Miocene)
    • Pseudaptenodytes (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
    • Marplesornis (Pliocene)
    • Dege
    • Nucleornis
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Pygoscelis (Middle/Late Miocene - Recent)
      • Spheniscus (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Aptenodytes (Early? Pliocene - Recent)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Spheniscidae gen. et sp. indet (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of Hakataramea, New Zealand)

Pteroclidiformes

  • Pteroclididae - Sandgrouse
    • Archaeoganga
    • Leptoganga

Columbiformes

  • Columbidae - Doves and pigeons
    • Gerandia (Early Miocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Columba (Early Pliocene - Recent)
      • Patagioenas (Early Pliocene - Recent)

Psittaciformes

Unresolved and basal fossil parrots:

  • Psittacopes (Early/Middle Eocene)
  • Serudaptus - pseudasturid or psittacid?
  • Pseudasturidae (= Halcyornithidae?)
    • Pseudasturides - formerly Pseudastur
  • Quercypsittidae
    • Quercypsitta (Late Eocene)
  • Cacatuidae
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Cacatua (Early Miocene - Recent)
  • Psittacidae - Parrots, parakeets and lories
    • Archaeopsittacus (Late Oligocene/Early Miocene)
    • Xenopsitta (Early Miocene)
    • Bavaripsitta (Middle Miocene)
    • †Psittaciformes gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene) - erroneously placed in Pararallus dispar, includes "Psittacus" lartetianus
    • Extant and recently extinct genera present in the fossil record
      • Conuropsis (Early? Miocene - Holocene)
      • Nandayus (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Cyanoliseus (Middle Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Aratinga (Late Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Rhynchopsitta (Late Pleistocene - Recent)

Cuculiformes

Cuckoos, turacos and allies.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Cuculiformes gen. et sp. indet. (Early Eocene of Walton-on-the Naze, England)
  • Opisthocomidae - Hoatzins
    • Hoazinoides (Late Miocene)
    • Hoatzi - may be same as Foro
  • Musophagidae - Turacos
    • Placement unresolved
      • Musophagidae gen. et sp. indet. (Egypt)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Musophaga africanus - formerly Apopempsis
      • Musophaga meini - formerly Apopempsis
  • Cuculidae - Cuckoos
    • Eocuculus (Late Eocene)
    • Dynamopterus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene)
    • Neococcyx (Early Oligocene)
    • Cursoricoccyx (Early Miocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Cuculidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Pliocene)

Falconiformes

Birds of prey

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Masillaraptor (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany) - basal?
  • Horusornithidae
    • Horusornis (Late Eocene)
  • Pandionidae - Ospreys
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Pandion (Early Oligocene - Recent)
  • Sagittariidae - Secretary Birds
    • Pelargopappus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene - Late Oligocene/Early Miocene of France) - formerly Amphiserpentarius/Amynoptilon/Pelargopsis
  • Accipitridae - Hawks, eagles and Old World vultures
    • Milvoides (Late Eocene)
    • Aquilavus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Palaeocircus (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene)
    • Palaeastur (Early Miocene)
    • Pengana (Early Miocene)
    • Promilio (Early Miocene)
    • Proictinia (Early - Late Miocene/Early Pliocene)
    • Apatosagittarius (Late Miocene)
    • Palaeoborus (Miocene)
    • Thegornis (Miocene)
    • Garganoaetus (Early Pliocene)
    • Neophrontops (Early/Middle Miocene - Late Pleistocene) - formerly in Neophron
    • Amplibuteo (Late Pliocene of Peru - Late Pleistocene) - may belong to extant genus Harpyhaliaetus
    • Neogyps
    • Palaeohierax - includes "Aquila" gervaisii
    • Wetmoregyps - formerly Morphnus daggetti
    • Placement unresolved
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. AMNH 7434 (Early Eocene)
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Oligocene)
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. (Early/Middle Pliocene) - Parabuteo?
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene) - Buteo?
      • Accipitridae gen. et sp. indet. (Egypt)
      • "Aquila" danana (Late Miocene/Early Pliocene) - formerly also Geranoaetus or Buteo
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Haliaeetus (Early Oligocene - Recent)
      • Buteo (middle Oligocene - Recent)
      • Aquila (Middle? Miocene - Recent)
      • "Hieraaetus" (Middle Miocene - Recent) - doubtfully distinct from Aquila
      • Milvus (Early Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Gyps (Middle Pleistocene - Recent)
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Buteogallus enectus (Sheep Creek Middle Miocene of Sioux County, USA)
      • Buteogallus sodalis (Fossil Lake Middle Pleistocene of Oregon) - formerly Aquila
      • Buteogallus fragilis (Late Pleistocene of SW USA) - formerly Geranoaetus or Buteo
      • Buteogallus milleri (Late Pleistocene of New Mexico, USA)
      • Spizaetus grinnelli (Rancho La Brea Late Pleistocene of California, USA) - formerly Geranoaetus or Buteo
      • Spizaetus pliogryps - formerly Aquila
  • Falconidae - Falcons
    • Parvulivenator (Early Eocene)
    • Stintonornis (Early Eocene)
    • Badiostes (Early Miocene)
    • Pediohierax (Middle Miocene) - formerly Falco ramenta
    • Placement unresolved
      • Falconidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene)
      • "Sushkinia" pliocaena (Early Pliocene) - belongs into Falco?
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Falco (Late Miocene? - Recent)
      • Milvago (Late Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Polyborus (Late Pleistocene - Recent)

Caprimulgiformes

Nightjars, potoos and allies. Apparently paraphyletic.

  • Placement unresolved
    • Paraprefica (Early Eocene?) - Steatornithidae or Nyctibiidae
  • Steatornithidae - Oilbirds
    • Prefica
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Steatornis sp.
  • Podargidae - Frogmouths
    • Masillapodargus
    • Quercypodargus
  • Nyctibiidae - Potoos
    • Euronyctibius
  • Caprimulgidae - Nightjars
    • Ventivorus

Aegotheliformes

Owlet-nightjars

  • Aegothelidae
    • Quipollornis (Early/Middle Miocene)

Apodiformes

Swifts, hummingbirds and owlet-nightjars.

  • Basal and unresolved forms
    • Primapus (Early Eocene) - aegialornithid or apodid
    • Parargornis (Middle Eocene) - jungornithid, trochilid, basal as Argornis?
    • Argornis (Late Eocene) - basal to Jungornithidae and Trochilidae
    • Cypselavus (Late Eocene - Early Oligocene) - aegialornithid or hemiprocnid
  • Aegialornithidae
    • Aegialornis (Early? - Late Eocene)
  • Jungornithidae
    • Jungornis (Early Oligocene of N Caucasus, Russia)
    • Palescyvus
    • Laputavis
  • Trochilidae - Hummingbirds
    • Eurotrochilus (Early Oligocene of Frauenweiler, Germany)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Trochilidae sp. et gen. indet. (Bahamas, West Indies)
      • Trochilidae sp. et gen. indet. (Brazil)
  • Apodidae - Swifts
    • Scaniacypselus (Early - Middle Eocene)
    • Procypseloides (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Apus (Middle/Late Miocene - Recent
      • Tachornis (Late Pleistocene - Recent)

Coliiformes

Mousebirds and relatives

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Chascacocolius (Late Paleocene? - Early Eocene) - basal? sandcoleid?
    • Eocolius (Early Eocene) - sandcoleid or coliid
    • Selmes (Middle Eocene? -Late Oligocene) - coliid?, possibly synonym of Primocolius
    • "Necrornis" palustris (Miocene) - coliid (genus Colius)?
    • "Picus" archiaci (Miocene) - coliid? genus Limnatornis?
    • "Picus" consobrinus (Miocene) - coliid?
    • Eobucco - sandcoleid?
    • Uintornis - sandcoleid?
    • Limnatornis
  • Sandcoleidae
    • Sandcoleus
    • Anneavis
    • Eoglaucidium
  • Coliidae - Mousebirds
    • Primocolius (Late Eocene/Oligocene)
    • Oligocolius (Early Oligocene)
    • Masillacolius (Middle Eocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Colius (Early Pliocene - Recent)

Strigiformes

Owls and barn owls

  • Unresolved and basal forms
    • Berruornis (Late Paleocene) - basal? Sophornithidae?
    • †Strigiformes gen. et ap. indet. (Late Paleocene)
    • Palaeoglaux (Middle - Late Eocene) - own family Palaeoglaucidae or Strigidae?
    • Palaeobyas (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene) - Tytonidae? Sophiornithidae?
    • Palaeotyto (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene) - Tytonidae?
    • †Strigiformes gen. et spp. indet. (Early Oligocene)
    • Mioglaux (Late Oligocene? - Early Miocene) - includes "Bubo" poirreiri
    • Intutula (Early/Middle -? Late Miocene) - includes "Strix/Ninox" brevis
    • Alasio (Middle Miocene)
    • Lechuza stirtoni (Miocene California)
  • Ogygoptyngidae
    • Ogygoptynx (Middle/Late Paleocene)
  • Protostrigidae
    • Eostrix (Early - Middle Eocene)
    • Minerva (Middle - Late Eocene) - formerly Protostrix, includes "Aquila" ferox, "Aquila" lydekkeri, and "Bubo" leptosteus
    • Oligostrix (middle Oligocene)
  • Sophiornithidae
    • Sophiornis
  • Strigidae - Typical owls
    • Placement unresolved
      • "Otus" wintershofensis (Early/Middle Miocene) - may be close to extant genus Ninox
      • "Strix" edwardsi (Late Miocene)
      • "Asio" pygmaeus (Early Pliocene)
      • Strigidae gen. et sp. indet. UMMP V31030 (Late Pliocene) - Strix/Bubo?
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Strix (Early Miocene - Recent)
      • Bubo (Late Miocene? - Recent)
      • Asio (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Athene (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Glaucidium (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Surnia (Late Pliocene - Recent)
      • Pulsatrix (Late Pleistocene - Recent)
  • Tytonidae - Barn Owls
    • Necrobyas (Late Eocene/Early Oligocene - Early Miocene)
    • Prosybris (Early Oligocene? - Early Miocene)
    • Nocturnavis
    • Selenornis
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Tyto (Late Miocene - Recent)

Coraciiformes

Rollers and allies.

  • Basal and unresolved forms
    • Quasisyndactylus (Middle Eocene) - alcediniform, basal?
    • Cryptornis (Late Eocene) - bucerotid? geranopterid?
    • † Coraciiformes gen. et spp. indet. PQ 1216, QU 15640 (Late Eocene) - 2 species
  • Geranopteridae
    • Geranopterus (Late Eocene - Early Miocene) - includes "Nupharanassa" bohemica
  • Eocoraciidae
    • Eocoracias (Middle Eocene)
  • Primobucconidae - coraciiform?
    • Primobucco (Early - Middle Eocene)
  • Todidae - Todies
    • Palaeotodus
  • Motmotidae - Motmots
    • Protornis (Oligocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Momotidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene)
  • Messelirrisoridae
    • Messelirrisor (Middle Eocene)
  • Bucerotidae - Hornbills
    • Geiseloceros robustus (Middle Eocene, Germany)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Bucorvus

Trogoniformes

  • Trogonidae - Trogons
    • Septentrogon (Fur Late Paleocene/Early Eocene of Ejerslev, Denmark)
    • Primotrogon (Middle Eocene of Messel, Germany? - Early Oligocene of France)
    • Paratrogon (Early Miocene of France)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Trogonidae gen. et sp. indet. 1 (NW Europe)
      • Trogonidae gen. et sp. indet. 2 (NW Europe)

Piciformes

  • Placement unresolved
    • †Piciformes gen. et sp. indet. IRScNB Av 65 (Early Oligocene)
    • Rupelramphastoides (Early Oligocene) - ramphastid?
    • †Piciformes gen. et sp. indet. SMF Av 429 (Late Oligocene)
    • Capitonides (Early - Middle Miocene) - ramphastid or capitonid
  • Miopiconidae
    • Miopico
  • Picidae - Woodpeckers
    • Palaeopicus (Late Oligocene)
    • Palaeonerpes (Early Pliocene)
    • Pliopicus (Early Pliocene)
    • Placement unresolved
      • Picidae gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene)
      • Picidae gen. et sp. indet. (Late Miocene)
      • cf. Colaptes DMNH 1262 (Early Pliocene of Ainsworth, USA)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Campephilus (Late Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Colaptes
      • Dendrocopos
      • Additional prehistoric subspecies of extant species
        • Melanerpes superciliaris ssp. (Little Exuma, Bahamas)
        • Melanerpes superciliaris ssp. (New Providence, Bahamas)

Passeriformes

  • Placement unresolved
    • †Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. QM F20688,F24685 (Early Eocene) - 2 spp.
    • Wieslochia (Early Oligocene)
    • †Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. SMF Av 504 (Late Oligocene) - suboscine
    • †Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. (Late Oligocene)
    • †Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. MACN-SC-1411 (Early/Middle Miocene)
    • †Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. SMN Av 487-496 (Middle Miocene)
    • †Passeriformes gen. et spp. indet. (Sajóvölgyi Middle Miocene) - 3 spp.: Passeroidea, Muscicapoidea, Paridae?
    • †Passeriformes gen. et sp. indet. SMNS 86822,86825-86826
    • "Palaeostruthus" eurius (Pliocene)
  • Eurylaimidae - Broadbills
    • Placement unresolved
      • Eurylaimidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Miocene)
  • Palaeoscinidae
    • Paleoscinis (Late Miocene)
  • Furnariidae - Ovenbirds
    • Pseudoseisuropsis (Late Pleistocene of Uruguyay)
    • Prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Pseudoseisura cursor (Ensenada Early/Middle Pleistocene of Anchorena, Argentina)
      • Cinclodes major (Middle Pleistocene of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina)
  • Menuridae - Lyretails
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Menura (Early Miocene - Recent)
  • Meliphagidae - Honeyeaters
    • Placement unresolved
      • Meliphagidae gen. et spp. indet. (Middle/Late Miocene - Pliocene of Riversleigh, Australia) - at least 7 spp., some may be from extant genera
  • Orthonychidae - Logrunners
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Orthonyx (Middle/Late Miocene - Recent)
  • Oriolidae - Orioles and Figbird
    • Longimornis (Early Miocene of Riversleigh, Australia)
  • Corvidae - Crows, ravens, jays and magpies
    • Miocorvus (Middle Miocene)
    • Miopica (Middle Miocene)
    • Miocitta (Late Miocene)
    • Protocitta (Early Pleistocene)
    • Henocitta (Middle Pleistocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Corvus (Late Miocene - Recent)
      • Pica (Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene - Recent)
      • Pyrrhocorax
    • Placement unresolved
      • Corvidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early Pliocene)
      • Corvidae gen. et sp. indet. (Early/Middle Pleistocene) - probably belongs into extant genus
  • Laniidae - Shrikes
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Lanius (Early Miocene - Recent)
  • Regulidae - Kinglets
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Regulus (Late Pliocene - Recent)
  • Megaluridae - Grass-warblers and allies
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • ?Locustella (Late Miocene - Recent)
  • Acrocephalidae - Marsh- and tree-warblers
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • ?Acrocephalus (Late Miocene - Recent)
  • Motacillidae - Wagtails
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Motacilla
  • Fringillidae - Finches
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Loxia (Late Pliocene - Recent)
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Coccothraustes simeonovi (Late Pliocene of Varshets, Bulgaria)
      • Coccothraustes balcanicus
  • Icteridae - Grackles
    • Pandanaris (Pleistocene)
    • Pyelorhamphus (Pleistocene)
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Euphagus (Late Pleistocene - Recent)
  • Cardinalidae - Cardinals
    • Placement unresolved
      • ?Passerina sp. (Early Pliocene of Yepómera, Mexico)
  • Emberizidae - Buntings and New World sparrows
    • Extant genera present in the fossil record
      • Ammodramus (Late Miocene - Recent) - includes Palaeostruthus
    • Additional prehistoric species of extant genera
      • Pipilo angelensis (Pleistocene of Rancho La Brea, USA)

Avians incertae sedis

  These fossil taxa cannot be assigned to any major group with reasonable certainty. The "proto-birds" above are of some indeterminate basal position in the entire avian (and paravian) radiation, but known from such diagnostic material that their relationships at the family level are known. In contrast, the taxa here have a hypodigm that is usually just sufficient for giving them a valid scientific name, but not for phylogenetic purposes beyond classing them as pygostylians or more modern birds. Some, however, are known from such fragmentary remains that the possibility that they are non-avian reptiles such as dinosaurs cannot be ruled out at present.

  • Holbotia (Early Cretaceous of Andaikhudag, Mongolia) - basal pygostylian?
  • Hongshanornis (Yixian Early Cretaceous of China) - pygostylian? ornithurine?
  • "Jibeinia" (Early Cretaceous) - euenantiornithine? A nomen dubium
  • Nanantius (Early Cretaceous) - enantiornithine?
  • Otogornis (Yijinhuoluo Early Cretaceous of Yike Zhaomeng, China) - basal pygostylian? enantiornithine?
  • Paraprotopteryx (Yixian Early Cretaceous of Fengning, China) - enantiornithine?
  • Protopteryx (Early Cretaceous of China) - enantiornithine?
  • Wyleyia (Early Cretaceous) - basal enantiornithine? neornithine (paleognath)?
  • †Aves gen. et sp. indet. Sahat Sakhan Dinosaur Research Centre collection, unnumbered (Sao Khua Early Cretaceous of Khok Kong, Thailand) - ornithurine?
  • †Aves? gen. et sp. indet. NMC 50852 (Early/Late Cretaceous of Kem Kem region, Morocco) - avian? dromaeosaurid (close to Rahonavis)?
  • Apatornis (Late Cretaceous) - neornithine (anseriform)?
  • "Cerebavis" (Late Cretaceous) - enantiornithine? A nomen dubium
  • "Elopteryx" (Late Cretaceous) - pygostylian? non-avian dinosaur? A nomen dubium
  • †Euornithes gen. et sp. indet. (Bissekty Late Cretaceous of Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan)
  • Gargantuavis (Late Cretaceous) - pygostylian? (enantiornithine?) basal ornithurine?
  • Hulsanpes (Late Cretaceous) - basal avian? non-avian dinosaur?
  • Iaceornis (Late Cretaceous of Gove County, USA) - neornithine or basal ornithurine
  • †Ornithurae gen. et sp. indet. IGM 100/1309 (Nemegt Late Cretaceous of Tsagaan Kushu, Mongolia) - presbyornithid?
  • †Ornithurae gen. et sp. indet. IGM 100/1310 (Nemegt Late Cretaceous of Tsagaan Kushu, Mongolia) - basal?
  • Horezmavis (Bissekty Late Cretaceous of Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan) - enantiornithine (gobipterygiform?), basal ornithurine or gruiform
  • "Ichthyornis" minusculus (Bissekty Late Cretaceous of Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan) - enantiornithine?
  • †cf. Nanantius (Bissekty Late Cretaceous of Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan) - enantiornithine?
  • Neogaeornis (Late Cretaceous) - baptornithid or neornithine (gaviiform, procellariiform?)
  • Patagopteryx (Late Cretaceous) - pygostylian? (enantiornithine?)
  • Piksi (Two Medicine Late Cretaceous of Montana) - ornithothoracine (perhaps distinct lineage), basal ornithurine or neornithine?
  • Platanavis (Bissekty Late Cretaceous of Kyzyl Kum, Uzbekistan)
  • Potamornis (Late Cretaceous) - hesperornithid? baptornithid? enaliornithid?
  • Vorona (Late Cretaceous) - enantiornithine? basal ornithuromorph?
  • †UCMP 143274 (Lance Creek Late Cretaceous of Niobrara County, USA) - psittaciform? non-avian?
  • Polarornis (Late Cretaceous or Eocene) - gaviiform or pygostylian, may be synonym of Neogaeornis
  • Yandangornis (Late Cretaceous) - basal avian? non-avian dinosaur?
  • Guildavis (Cretaceous of Wallace County, USA) - neornithine or basal ornithurine
  • "Cathayornis" aberransis
  • "Cathayornis" caudatus
  • Dalingheornis - enantiornithine?
  • Gobipipus
  • "Ichthyornis" maltshevskyi
  • Chaoyangidae - pygostylian (ornithurine?), yanornithiform?
    • Chaoyangia (Jiufotang Early Cretaceous of Liaoning, China)
  • Zhyraornithidae - enantiornithiform, ornithurine?
    • Zhyraornis (Late Cretaceous)

 

Liaoningornithiformes

  • Liaoningornithidae - pygostylian? ornithurine?
    • Liaoningornis (Yixian Early Cretaceous of Liaoning, China)

Eurolimnornithiformes

  • Eurolimnornithidae - basal ornithurine, neognathe (grebe?) or non-avian?
    • Eurolimnornis (Early Cretaceous)

Palaeocursornithiformes

  • Palaeocursornithidae - basal ornithurine, paleognath (ratite) or non-avian?
    • Palaeocursornis (Early Cretaceous)



See also

References

  • Chiappe, Luis M. (2001): The rise of birds. In: Briggs, Derek E.G. & Crowther, P.R. (eds.): Palaeobiology II: A Synthesis: 102-106. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Chiappe, Luis M. (2002): Basal bird phylogeny: problems and solutions. In: Chiappe, L.M. and Witmer, L.M. (eds.): Mesozoic Birds: Above the Heads of Dinosaurs: 448-472. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.
  • Clarke, Julia A.; Zhou, Zhonghe & Zhang, Fucheng (2006): Insight into the evolution of avian flight from a new clade of Early Cretaceous ornithurines from China and the morphology of Yixianornis grabaui. Journal of Anatomy 208 (3):287-308. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2006.00534.x PDF fulltext Electronic Appendix
  • Gauthier, Jacques A. & de Queiroz, Kevin (2001): Feathered dinosaurs, flying dinosaurs, crown dinosaurs, and the name "Aves". In: Gauthier, Jacques & Gall, L.F. (eds.): New Perspectives on the Origin and Early Evolution of Birds: Proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom: 7-41. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "List_of_fossil_birds". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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