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Lactobacillus



Lactobacillus

Lactobacillus bacteria (around vaginal squamous epithelial cells)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Division: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Lactobacillaceae
Genus: Lactobacillus
Beijerinck 1901
Species

L. acidophilus
L. brevis
L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus
L. casei
L. delbrueckii
L. fermentum
L. helveticus
L. plantarum
L. rhamnosus
L. reuteri
L. sanfranciscensis
etc.

Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacteria[citation needed]. They are a major part of the lactic acid bacteria group, named as such because most of its members convert lactose and other sugars to lactic acid. They are common and usually benign. In humans they are present in the vagina and the gastrointestinal tract, where they are symbiotic and make up a small portion of the gut flora. Many species are prominent in decaying plant material. The production of lactic acid makes its environment acidic which inhibits the growth of some harmful bacteria. Several members of the genus have had their genome sequenced.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Food production

Some Lactobacillus species are used industrially for the production of yogurt, cheese, sauerkraut, pickles, beer, wine, cider, kimchi and other fermented foods, as well as animal feeds, such as silage. Sourdough bread is made using a "starter culture" which is a symbiotic culture of yeast and lactic acid bacteria growing in a water and flour medium. Lactobacilli, especially L. casei and L. brevis, are some of the most common beer spoilage organisms. The species operate by lowering the pH of the fermenting substance by creating the lactic acid, neutralising it to the desired extent.

Taxonomy

The genus Lactobacillus currently consists of over 100 species and encompasses a wide variety of organisms. The genus is triphyletic, with the genus Pediococcus dividing the L. casei group, and the genera Weisella, Oenococcus, and Leuconostoc creating a second division.

Dental cavities

Although considered beneficial, some Lactobacillus species have been associated with dental caries. [1] Lactobacillus count in saliva has been used as a "caries test" for many years. [2] This is one of the arguments used in support of the use of fluoride in toothpaste and lozenges. [3]

Metabolism

Many lactobacilli are unusual in that they operate using homofermentative metabolism (that is, they produce only lactic acid from sugars) and are aerotolerant despite the complete absence of a respiratory chain. This aerotolerance is manganese-dependent and has been explored (and explained) in Lactobacillus plantarum. Many lactobacilli do not require iron for growth and have an extremely high hydrogen peroxide tolerance.

According to metabolism, Lactobacillus species can be divided into three groups:

  • Obligately homofermentative (Group I)
  • Facultatively heterofermentative (Group II)
    • L. casei, L. curvatus, L. plantarum, L. sakei
  • Obligately heterofermentative (Group III)

References

  • Tomas James Rees, Cranfield University, 1997. The development of a novel antifungal silage inoculant. PhD Thesis (HTML)
  • The Ohio State University Food Science and Technology Department. Lactic Acid Bacteria - Carbohydrate and Protein Metabolism. PowerPoint lecture
  • Dicks LM, Silvester M, Lawson PA, Collins MD (2000). Lactobacillus fornicalis sp. nov., isolated from the posterior fornix of the human vagina. Abstract, PDF file

See also

 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Lactobacillus". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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