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Haplogroup Q (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup Q (M242) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup Q is a branch of haplogroup P (M45). It is believed to have arisen in Siberia approximately 15,000 to 20,000 years ago.
This haplogroup contains the patrilineal ancestors of many Siberians, Central Asians, and indigenous peoples of the Americas. Haplogroup Q Y-chromosomes are also found scattered at a low frequency throughout Eurasia. This haplogroup is surprisingly diverse despite its low frequency among most populations outside of Siberia or the Americas, and at least six primary subclades have been sampled and identified in modern populations.
A migration from Asia into Alaska across the Bering Strait was done by haplogroup Q populations approximately 15,000 years ago. This founding population spread throughout the Americas. Once in the Americas, haplogroup Q underwent a mutation, producing its descendant population defined by the M3 SNP.
Additional recommended knowledge
In the Old World the Q lineage and its many branches is largely found within a huge triangle defined by Norway in the West, Iran in the South and Mongolia in the East. There is also a rough correlation between the Turkic-speaking peoples of Central Eurasia and Q. The frequency of Q in Norway and Mongolia is about 4% while in the Iranian cities of Shiraz and Esfahan, the frequency runs between 6% and 8%; Iranian samples of haplogroup Q belong almost exclusively to the M25 defined subclade. In the middle of this triangle, in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, the frequency of Q runs between 10% and 14%. Only two groups in the Old World are majority Q groups. These are the Selkups (~70%) and Kets (~95%). They live in western and middle Siberia and are small in number, being just under 5,000 and 1,500, respectively.
Technical specification of mutation
The technical details of M242 are:
The subclades of Haplogroup Q with their defining mutation(s), according to the 2006 ISOGG tree:
A major revision of the Q tree is expected to be published in early 2008. If no other SNPs are found then the new tree will look like this.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Haplogroup_Q_(Y-DNA)". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|