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Apelin



apelin, AGTRL1 ligand
Identifiers
Symbol APLN
Alt. Symbols XNPEP2
Entrez 8862
HUGO 16665
OMIM 300297
RefSeq NM_017413
UniProt Q9ULZ1
Other data
Locus Chr. X q25-26.3

Apelin is a recently identified endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled APJ receptor.[1][2][3][4] It is widely expressed in various organs such as the heart, lung, kidney, adipose tissue, gastrointestinal tract, brain, adrenal glands, endothelium, and human plasma.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Functions

Apelin acts as a mediator of the cardiovascular control, including for blood pressure and blood flow. It is one of the most potent stimulators of cardiac contractility yet identified, and plays a role in cardiac tissue remodeling. Apelin levels are increased in left ventricles of patients with chronic heart failure.

It is also an adipocyte endocrine secretion, making adipocytic and circulating levels of apelin higher in obesity. Insulin exerts a positive action on adipocyte apelin production.

In addition, apelin regulates fluid homeostasis. It is important in the hypothalamic regulation of food and water intake, and pituitary hormone release.

It is also an adipocyte endocrine secretion, making adipocytic and circulating levels of apelin higher in obesity. Insulin exerts a positive action on adipocyte apelin production. In addition, apelin regulates fluid homeostasis. It is important in the hypothalamic regulation of food and water intake, and pituitary hormone release.

Further reading

[5][6][7][8]

References

  1. ^ Tatemoto K, Hosoya M, Habata Y, Fujii R, Kakegawa T, Zou MX, Kawamata Y, Fukusumi S, Hinuma S, Kitada C, Kurokawa T, Onda H, Fujino M (1998). "Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 251 (2): 471–6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.9489. PMID 9792798.
  2. ^ Lee DK, Cheng R, Nguyen T, Fan T, Kariyawasam AP, Liu Y, Osmond DH, George SR, O'Dowd BF (2000). "Characterization of apelin, the ligand for the APJ receptor". J. Neurochem. 74 (1): 34–41. PMID 10617103.
  3. ^ Szokodi I, Tavi P, Földes G, Voutilainen-Myllylä S, Ilves M, Tokola H, Pikkarainen S, Piuhola J, Rysä J, Tóth M, Ruskoaho H (2002). "Apelin, the novel endogenous ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, regulates cardiac contractility". Circ. Res. 91 (5): 434–40. PMID 12215493.
  4. ^ Kleinz MJ, Davenport AP (2005). "Emerging roles of apelin in biology and medicine". Pharmacol. Ther. 107 (2): 198–211. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.04.001. PMID 15907343.
  5. ^ Lee DK, George SR, O'Dowd BF (2006). "Unravelling the roles of the apelin system: prospective therapeutic applications in heart failure and obesity". Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 27 (4): 190–4. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2006.02.006. PMID 16530855.
  6. ^ Lee DK, Saldivia VR, Nguyen T, Cheng R, George SR, O'Dowd BF (2005). "Modification of the terminal residue of apelin-13 antagonizes its hypotensive action". Endocrinology 146 (1): 231–6. doi:10.1210/en.2004-0359. PMID 15486224.
  7. ^ Lee DK, Lança AJ, Cheng R, Nguyen T, Ji XD, Gobeil F, Chemtob S, George SR, O'Dowd BF (2004). "Agonist-independent nuclear localization of the Apelin, angiotensin AT1, and bradykinin B2 receptors". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (9): 7901–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M306377200. PMID 14645236.
  8. ^ O'Dowd BF, Heiber M, Chan A, Heng HH, Tsui LC, Kennedy JL, Shi X, Petronis A, George SR, Nguyen T (1993). "A human gene that shows identity with the gene encoding the angiotensin receptor is located on chromosome 11". Gene 136 (1-2): 355–60. PMID 8294032.

External links

  • MeSH Apelin+protein,+human
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Apelin". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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