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Viroid



Viroid
Scientific classification
(unranked) Subviral agents
(unranked) Viroid
Families

Pospiviroidae
Avsunviroidae

Viroids are plant pathogens that consist of a short stretch (a few hundred nucleobases) of highly complementary, circular, single-stranded RNA without the protein coat that is typical for viruses. The smallest so far is a 220 nucleobase scRNA (small cytoplasmic RNA) associated with the rice yellow mottle sobemovirus (RYMV)[1]. In comparison, the genome of the smallest known viruses capable of causing an infection by themselves are around 2 kilobases in size.

Viroids were discovered and given this name by Theodor O. Diener, a plant pathologist at the Agricultural Research Service in Maryland, in 1971. [2] [3]

Viroid RNA does not code for any known protein; some even lack the AUG initiation codon. The replication mechanism involves interaction with RNA polymerase II, an enzyme normally associated with synthesis of messenger RNA, and "rolling circle" synthesis of new RNA. Some viroids are ribozymes, having RNA enzyme properties which allow self-cleavage and ligation of unit-size genomes from larger replication intermediates. It has been proposed that viroids are "escaped introns".

Viroids are usually transmitted by seed or pollen. Infected plants can show distorted growth. The first viroid to be identified was the Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). Some 33 species have been identified.

Primary and secondary structure of the PSTVd viroid:

1 CGGAACUAAA CUCGUGGUUC CUGUGGUUCA CACCUGACCU CCUGAGCAGA AAAGAAAAAA

61 GAAGGCGGCU CGGAGGAGCG CUUCAGGGAU CCCCGGGGAA ACCUGGAGCG AACUGGCAAA

121 AAAGGACGGU GGGGAGUGCC CAGCGGCCGA CAGGAGUAAU UCCCGCCGAA ACAGGGUUUU

181 CACCCUUCCU UUCUUCGGGU GUCCUUCCUC GCGCCCGCAG GACCACCCCU CGCCCCCUUU

241 GCGCUGUCGC UUCGGCUACU ACCCGGUGGA AACAACUGAA GCUCCCGAGA ACCGCUUUUU

301 CUCUAUCUUA CUUGCUUCGG GGCGAGGGUG UUUAGCCCUU GGAACCGCAG UUGGUUCCU

 

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Taxonomy

  • Family Pospiviroidae
    • Genus Pospiviroid; type species: Potato spindle tuber viroid
    • Genus Hostuviroid; type species: Hop stunt viroid
    • Genus Cocadviroid; type species: Coconut cadang-cadang viroid
    • Genus Apscaviroid; type species: Apple scar skin viroid
    • Genus Coleviroid; type species: Coleus blumei viroid 1
  • Family Avsunviroidae

Viroids and RNA silencing

There has long been confusion over how viroids are able to induce symptoms in plants without encoding any protein products within their sequences. Evidence now suggests that RNA silencing is involved in the process. First, changes to the viroid genome can dramatically alter its virulence.[4] This reflects that fact that any siRNAs produced would have less complementary base pairing with target messenger RNA. Secondly, siRNAs corresponding to sequences from viroid genomes have been isolated from infected plants.[5] Finally, transgenic expression of the noninfectious hpRNA of potato spindle tuber viroid develops all the corresponding viroid like symptoms.[6]

This evidence indicates that when viroids replicate via a double stranded intermediate RNA, they are targeted by a dicer enzyme and cleaved into siRNAs that are then loaded onto the RNA-induced silencing complex. The viroid siRNAs actually contain sequences capable of complementary base pairing with the plant's own messenger RNAs and induction of degradation or inhibition of translation is what causes the classic viroid symptoms.

Pathology

The only human disease known to be caused by a viroid is hepatitis D. This disease was previously ascribed to a defective virus called the delta agent. However, it now is known that the delta agent is a viroid enclosed in a hepatitis B virus capsid. For hepatitis D to occur there must be simultaneous infection of a cell with both the hepatitis B virus and the hepatitis D viroid. There is extensive sequence complementarity between the hepatitis D viroid RNA and human liver cell 7S RNA. 7S RNA is a small cytoplasmic RNA that is a component of the signal recognition particle, the structure involved in the translocation of secretory and membrane-associated particles. The hepatitis D viroid causes liver cell death via sequestering this 7S RNA and/or cleaving it.

See also

Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
General Biology/Classification of Living Things/Viruses, Prions, and Viroids

References

  1. ^ Collins RF, Gellatly DL, Sehgal OP, Abouhaidar MG (1998). "Self-cleaving circular RNA associated with rice yellow mottle virus is the smallest viroid-like RNA". Virology 241 (2): 269-75. doi:10.1006/viro.1997.8962. PMID 9499801.
  2. ^ Discovery of Viroids
  3. ^ ARS Research Timeline - Tracking the Elusive Viroid (2006-03-02). Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  4. ^ Elizabeth Dickson, Hugh D. Robertson, C. L. Niblett, R. K. Horst & Milton Zaitlin (1979). "Minor differences between nucleotide sequences of mild and severe strains of potato spindle tuber viroid". Nature 277: 60-62. doi:10.1038/277060a0.
  5. ^ Papaefthimiou I, Hamilton A, Denti M, Baulcombe D, Tsagris M, Tabler M (2001). "Replicating potato spindle tuber viroid RNA is accompanied by short RNA fragments that are characteristic of post-transcriptional gene silencing". Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (11): 2395-400. doi:10.1093/nar/29.11.2395. PMID 11376158.
  6. ^ Wang MB, Bian XY, Wu LM, et al (2004). "On the role of RNA silencing in the pathogenicity and evolution of viroids and viral satellites". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (9): 3275-80. doi:10.1073/pnas.0400104101. PMID 14978267.

Further reading

  • WikiSpecies:Virus
  • Wikipedia:WikiProject Viruses
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Viroid". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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