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Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep, and a subcategory of animal husbandry. Sheep farming is primarily based on raising lambs for meat, or raising sheep for wool. Sheep may also be raised for milk. Some farmers specialize in breeding sheep to sell to other farmers.
Additional recommended knowledge
Shelter and Environment
Sheep are kept in flocks — in pens, in a barn or on pasture. In cold climates sheep need shelter in the winter. Sheep need shelter from rain for a day before shearing so that the fleece is dry enough to be pressed.
Sheep, particularly those kept inside, are vaccinated when they are newborn lambs. The lambs receive their first antibodies via their mother's colostrum in the first few hours of life, and then via a vaccination booster every six weeks for next three months and then by booster every six months. Farmers work with animal nutritionists and veterinarians to keep sheep healthy and to manage animal health problems. Lambs may be castrated and have their tails docked for easier shearing, cleanliness and to help protect them from fly strike. Shearers or farmers need to remove wool from the hindquarters, around the anus, so that droppings do not adhere. In the southern hemisphere this is called dagging or crutching.
Water, Food and Air
Sheep need fresh water from troughs or ponds, except that in some countries, such as New Zealand, there is enough moisture in the grass to satisfy them much of the time.
Upon being weaned from ewe's milk, they eat hay, grains and grasses. The lambs are weaned due to increasing competition between the lamb and ewe for food. Sheep are active grazers where such feed is available at ground or low levels. They are usually given feed twice a day from troughs or they are allowed to graze in a pasture.
Sheep are most comfortable when the temperature is moderate, so fans may be needed for fresh air if sheep are kept in barns during hot weather. In Australia, sheep in pasture are often subjected to 40 °C (104 °F), and higher, daytime temperatures without deleterious effects. In New Zealand sheep are kept on pasture in snow for periods of 3 or 4 days before they have to have supplemental feeding.
Flock management styles
Generally speaking, there are four general styles of sheep husbandry to serve the varied aspects of the sheep industry and the needs of a particular shepherd. Commercial sheep operations supplying meat and wool are usually either "range band flocks" or "farm flocks". Range band flocks are those with large numbers of sheep (often 1,000 to 1,500 ewes) cared for by a few full-time shepherds.. The pasture-which must be of large acreage to accommodate the greater number of sheep-can either be fenced or open. Range flocks usually require the shepherds to live with the sheep as they move throughout the pasture, as well as the use of sheepdogs and means of transport such as horses or motor vehicles. As range band flocks move within a large area in which it would be difficult to supply a steady source of grain, almost all subsist on pasture alone. This style of sheep raising accounts for most of the sheep operations in the U.S., South America, and Australia.
Farm flocks are those that are slightly smaller than range bands, and are kept on a more confined, fenced pasture land. Farm flocks may also be a secondary priority on a larger farm, such as by farmers who raise a surplus of crops to finish market lambs on, or those with untillable land they wish to exploit. However, farm flocks account for many farms focused on sheep as primary income in the U.K. and New Zealand (due to the more limited land available in comparison to other sheep-producing nations). The farm flock is a common style of flock management for those who wish to supplement grain feed for meat animals.
An important corollary form of flock management to the aforementioned styles are specialized flocks raising purebred sheep. Many commercial flocks, especially those producing sheep meat, utilize cross-bred animals. Breeders raising purebred flocks provide stud stock to these operations, and often simultaneously work to improve the breed and participate in showing. Excess lambs are often sold to 4-H groups. The last type of sheep keeping is that of the hobbyist. This type of flock is usually very small compared to commercial operations, and may be considered pets. Those hobby flocks which are raised with production in mind may be for subsistence purposes or to provide a very specialized product, such as wool for handspinners. Quite a few people, especially those who emigrated to rural areas from urban or suburban enclaves, begin with hobby flocks or a 4-H lamb before eventually expanding to farm or range flocks.
Goals of flock management
A sheep farmer is concerned with keeping the correct ratio of male to female sheep, selecting traits for breeding, and controlling under-/over-breeding based on the size and genetic diversity of the flock. Other tasks include sheep shearing, crutching and lambing the sheep.
Sheep breeders look for such traits in their flocks as high wool quality, consistent muscle development, quick conception rate (for females), multiple births and quick physical development.
Another concern of a sheep farmer is the protection of livestock. Sheep have many natural enemies, such as coyotes (North America), foxes (Europe), dingoes (Australia), and dogs. Newborn lambs in pasture are particularly vulnerable, also falling prey to crows, eagles and ravens. In addition, they are susceptible in some areas to flystrike which in itself has led to invention of practices such as mulesing. Sheep may be kept in a fenced-in field or paddock. The farmer must ensure that the fences are maintained in order to prevent the sheep from wandering onto roads or neighbours' property. Alternatively, they may be "heafed" (trained to stay in a certain area without the need for fences). The hardy Herdwick breed is particularly known for its affinity for being heafed.
A shepherd and a sheep dog may be employed for protection of the flock. On large farms, dogs and riders on horseback or motorcycles may muster sheep.
Marking of sheep for identification purposes is often done by means of sheep tags - a type of ear tag. In some areas sheep are still identified through the use of notches cut in the ear known as ear marking, using either specially designed tools (ear marking pliers) or other cutting implements.
Lambing is term for the management of birth in domestic sheep. In agriculture it often requires assistance from the farmer or shepherd because of breeding, climate or the individual physiology of the ewe.
Australian farmers generally arrange for all the ewes in a mob to give birth (the lambing season) within a period of a few weeks often in early Autumn. As ewes sometimes fail to bond with newborn lambs, especially after delivering twins or triplets, it is important to minimize disturbances during this period.
In order to more closely manage the births, vaccinate lambs, and protect them from predators, shepherds will often have the ewes give birth in "lambing sheds"; essentially a barn (sometimes a temporary structure erected in the pasture) with individual pens for each ewe and her offspring.
Ewes are pregnant for just under five months before they lamb, and may have anywhere from one to three lambs per birth. Some ewes can have seven or eight lambs. Twin and single lambs are most common, triplets less common. A ewe may lamb once or twice a year. Lambs are weaned at three months. Sheep are full grown at two years weighing between 60 and 125 kilograms. Sheep can live to eleven or twelve years of age.
Sheep production worldwide
According to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations,  the top ten "indigenous sheep meat" producing countries in order of quantity are:
China actually has the greatest number of sheep in terms of number of livestock (See top ten list in Domestic sheep). While New Zealand rates number 2 on the list of total quantity of "indigenous sheep meat" produced, it has the highest number of sheep per-capita (outside of the Falkland Islands).
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Sheep_husbandry". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|