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Salmonella enterica

Salmonella enterica

S. enterica Typhimurium colonies on a Hektoen enteric agar plate
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Salmonella
Species: S. enterica
Binomial name
Salmonella enterica
(ex Kauffmann & Edwards 1952)
Le Minor & Popoff 1987

Salmonella enterica is a rod shaped, flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium, and a member of the genus Salmonella.[1]



S. enterica has an extraordinarily large number of serovars or strains—up to 2000 have been described.[2] Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi (historically elevated to species status as S. typhi) is the disease agent in typhoid fever. Other serovars such as Typhimurium (also known as S. typhimurium) can lead to a form of human gastroenteritis sometimes referred to as salmonellosis.

The genome sequences of serovars Typhi[3] and Typhimurium LT2[4] have been established. Also an analysis of the proteome of Typhimurium LT2 under differing environmental conditions has been performed [5].

Salmonella Typhi

Salmonella Typhi is a serovar of Salmonella enterica (formerly known as Salmonella choleraesuis) and the cause of the disease typhoid fever. The organism can be transmitted by the fecal-oral route—it is excreted by humans in feces and may be transmitted by contaminated water, food, or by person-to-person contact (with inadequate attention to personal hygiene).

Salmonella Typhi possesses three main antigenic factors: the O, or somatic antigen; the Vi, or encapsulation antigen; and the H, or flagellar antigen.[citation needed]


Most cases of salmonellosis are caused by food infected with S. enterica, which often infects cattle and poultry, though also other animals such as domestic cats and hamsters[6] have also been shown to be sources of infection to humans. However, investigations of vacuum cleaner bags have shown that households can act as a reservoir of the bacterium; this is more likely if the household has contact with an infection source, for example through members working with cattle or in a veterinary clinic.

Raw chicken and goose eggs can harbor salmonella enterica, initially in the whites of the eggs, although most eggs are not infected. As the egg ages at room temperature, the yolk membrane begins to break down and salmonella enterica can spread into the yolk. Refrigeration and freezing do not kill all the bacteria, but substantially slow or halt their growth. Pasteurizing (briefly heating to a specific temperature) and irradiation are used to kill salmonella for commercially produced foodstuffs containing raw eggs such as ice cream. Foods prepared in the home from raw eggs such as mayonnaises, cakes and cookies can spread salmonella if not properly cooked before consumption. See Egg (food).

Space bacteria

On September 25, 2007, Cheryl Nickerson (Center for Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology) at Arizona State University stated that space bacteria Salmonella typhimurium (food bugs, on their 12-day Atlantis orbiter flight, September 2006) were found to change the way they expressed 167 genes (regulated by a protein Hfq). It gained 3 times virulence than on earth.[7]

See also


  1. ^ Giannella RA (1996). Salmonella. In: Baron's Medical Microbiology (Barron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. (via NCBI Bookshelf) ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  2. ^ Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  3. ^ Parkhill J et al. (2001). "Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18". Nature 413 (6858): 848-52. PMID 11677608 doi:10.1038/35101607.
  4. ^ McClelland M et al. (2001). "Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2". Nature 413 (6858): 852-6. PMID 11677609 doi:10.1038/35101614.
  5. ^ Adkins JN et al (2006). "Analysis of the Salmonella typhimurium Proteome through Environmental Response toward Infectious Conditions". Molecular and Cellular Proteomics 5: 1450-1461. PMID 16684765.
  6. ^ Swanson SJ, Snider C, Braden CR, et al. (2007). "Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium associated with pet rodents" 356 (1): 21–28.
  7. ^ BBC NEWS, Space bugs become more dangerous
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Salmonella_enterica". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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