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Additional recommended knowledge
The following steps occur, in order, for transcription initiation:
Promoters can differ in "strength"; that is, how actively they promote transcription of their adjacent DNA sequence. Promoter strength is in many (but not all) cases, a matter of how tightly RNA polymerase and its associated accessory proteins bind to their respective DNA sequences. The more similar the sequences are to a consensus sequence, the stronger the binding is.
Most transcripts originate using adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and, to a lesser extent, guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) (purine nucleoside triphosphates) at the +1 site. Uridine-5'-triphosphate (UTP) and cytidine-5'-triphosphate (CTP) (pyrimidine nucleoside triphosphates) are disfavoured at the initiation site.
Two termination mechanisms are well known:
Other termination mechanisms include where RNAP comes across a region with repetitious thymidine residues in the DNA template, or where a GC-rich inverted repeat followed by 4 A residues. The inverted repeat forms a stable stem loop structure in the RNA, which causes the RNA to dissociate from the DNA template.
The -35 region and the -10 ("Pribnow box") region comprise the basic prokaryotic promoter, and |T| stands for the terminator. The DNA on the template strand between the +1 site and the terminator is transcribed into RNA, which is then translated into protein..
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Prokaryotic_transcription". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|