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Polyketide synthases, also known as PKSs, are a family of enzymes or enzyme complexes that produce polyketides, a large class of secondary metabolites, in bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. The biosyntheses of polyketides share striking similarities with fatty acid biosynthesis.
Additional recommended knowledge
The PKS genes for a certain polyketide are usually organized in one operon in bacteria and in gene clusters in eukaryotes:
Type I PKSs are further subdivided:
Modules and domains
Each type I polyketide-synthase module consists of several domains with defined functions, separated by short spacer regions. The order of modules and domains of a complete polyketide-synthase is as follows (in the order N-terminus to C-terminus):
The polyketide chain and the starter groups are bound with their carboxy functional group to the SH groups of the ACP and the KS domain through a thioester linkage: R-C(=O)OH + HS-protein <=> R-C(=O)S-protein + H2O.
The growing chain is handed over from one SH group to the next by trans-acylations and is releases at the end by hydrolysis or by cyclization (alcoholysis or aminolysis).
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Polyketide_synthase". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|