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Classification & external resources
DiseasesDB 24212
MedlinePlus 000759

Parkinsonism (also known as Parkinson's syndrome, atypical Parkinson's, or secondary Parkinson's) is a neurological syndrome characterized by tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, and postural instability.[1] The underlying causes of parkinsonism are numerous, and diagnosis can be complex.[2] While the neurodegenerative condition Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common cause of parkinsonism, a wide-range of other etiologies can lead to a similar set of symptoms, including some toxins, a few metabolic diseases, and a handful of non-PD neurological conditions.[3]


If PD has been excluded, the differential diagnosis or list of potential causes for this syndrome includes:


  1. ^ a b c d e f Aminoff MJ, Greenberg DA, Simon RP (2005). Clinical Neurology, 6th ed., Lange: McGraw-Hill Medical, 241–5. ISBN 0071423605. 
  2. ^ Tuite PJ, Krawczewski K (2007). "Parkinsonism: a review-of-systems approach to diagnosis". Seminars in neurology 27 (2): 113-22. doi:10.1055/s-2007-971174. PMID 17390256.
  3. ^ Christine CW, Aminoff MJ (2004). "Clinical differentiation of parkinsonian syndromes: prognostic and therapeutic relevance". Am. J. Med. 117 (6): 412-9. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2004.03.032. PMID 15380498.
  4. ^ Tse W, Cersosimo MG, Gracies JM, et al (2004). "Movement disorders and AIDS: a review". Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 10 (6): 323-34. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2004.03.001. PMID 15261874.
  5. ^ Maltête D, Guyant-Maréchal L, Mihout B, Hannequin D (2006). "Movement disorders and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a review". Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 12 (2): 65-71. doi:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2005.10.004. PMID 16364674.
  6. ^ Watanabe Y, Himeda T, Araki T (2005). "Mechanisms of MPTP toxicity and their implications for therapy of Parkinson's disease" (PDF). Med. Sci. Monit. 11 (1): RA17-23. PMID 15614202.
  7. ^ Wenning GK, Geser F (2003). "Multiple system atrophy". Rev. Neurol. (Paris) 159 (5 Pt 2): 3S31-8. PMID 12773886.
  8. ^ Uc EY, Rodnitzky RL (2003). "Childhood dystonia". Seminars in pediatric neurology 10 (1): 52-61. PMID 12785748.
  9. ^ a b c DeLong MR, Juncos JL (2004). Parkinson's Disease and Other Movement Disorders. In: Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 16th ed., McGraw-Hill Professional, p. 2414. ISBN 0-07-140235-7. 
  10. ^ Dinis-Oliveira RJ, Remião F, Carmo H, et al (2006). "Paraquat exposure as an etiological factor of Parkinson's disease". Neurotoxicology 27 (6): 1110-22. doi:10.1016/j.neuro.2006.05.012. PMID 16815551.
  11. ^ Thanvi B, Lo N, Robinson T (2005). "Vascular Parkinsonism--an important cause of parkinsonism in older people" (PDF). Age and ageing 34 (2): 114-9. doi:10.1093/ageing/afi025. PMID 15713855.
  12. ^ Członkowska A, Tarnacka B, Möller JC, et al (2007). "Unified Wilson's Disease Rating Scale - a proposal for the neurological scoring of Wilson's disease patients". Neurol. Neurochir. Pol. 41 (1): 1-12. PMID 17330175.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Parkinsonism". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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