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Non-peptidic antigen



Non-peptidic antigens are low molecular weight compounds that stimulate human Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells. The most potent activator for Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells is (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP), a natural intermediate of the non-mevalonate pathway of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) biosynthesis. HMB-PP is an essential metabolite in most pathogenic bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as in malaria parasites, but is absent from the human host.

Additional recommended knowledge

IPP itself is structurally closely related to HMB-PP and ubiquitously present in all living cells (i.e. also in human cells), yet its potency in vitro is 10,000-fold reduced; whether IPP represents a physiological 'danger' signal of stressed or transformed cells is still unclear.

Of pharmacological interest and with bioactivities comparable to that of IPP are synthetic aminobisphosphonates such as zoledronate (Zometa®) that are widely used to treat osteoporosis and bone metastases, and incidentally act as Vγ9/Vδ2 T cell receptor agonists.

Finally, certain alkylated amines have been described to activate Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells in vitro, however only at millimolar concentrations, i.e. with potencies 106-fold to 108-fold lower than those of HMB-PP, thereby questioning their physiological relevance.


References

  1. Morita CT, Mariuzza RA, Brenner MB. Antigen recognition by human γδ T cells: pattern recognition by the adaptive immune system. Springer Semin Immunopathol. 2000;22:191-217. PMID 11116953
  2. Eberl M, Hintz M, Reichenberg A, Kollas AK, Wiesner J, Jomaa H. Microbial isoprenoid biosynthesis and human γδ T cell activation. FEBS Lett. 2003;544:4-10. PMID 12782281
  3. Holtmeier W, Kabelitz D. γδ T cells link innate and adaptive immune responses. Chem Immunol Allergy. 2005;86:151-83. PMID 15976493
  4. Girardi M. Immunosurveillance and immunoregulation by γδ T cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2006 Jan;126:25-31. PMID 16417214
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Non-peptidic_antigen". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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