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Locked nucleic acid



 

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A locked nucleic acid (LNA), often referred to as inaccessible RNA, is a modified RNA nucleotide. The ribose moiety of an LNA nucleotide is modified with an extra bridge connecting the 2' and 4' carbons. The bridge "locks" the ribose in the 3'-endo structural conformation, which is often found in the A-form of DNA or RNA. LNA nucleotides can be mixed with DNA or RNA bases in the oligonucleotide whenever desired. Such oligomers are commercially available. The locked ribose conformation enhances base stacking and backbone pre-organization. This significantly increases the thermal stability (melting temperature) of oligonucleotides.


LNA nucleotides are used to increase the sensitivity and specificity of expression in DNA microarrays, FISH probes, real-time PCR probes and other molecular biology techniques based on oligonucleotides. For the in situ detection of miRNA the use of LNA is currently (2005) the only efficient method. A triplet of LNA nucleotides surrounding a single-base mismatch site maximizes LNA probe specificity unless the probe contains the guanine base of G-T mismatch. [1]

References

  1. ^ You Y.; Moreira B.G.; Behlke M.A. and Owczarzy R. (2006). "Design of LNA probes that improve mismatch discrimination". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (8). doi:10.1093/nar/gkl175.
  • Kaur, H.; Arora, A.; Wengel, J.; Maiti, S. (2006). "Thermodynamic, Counterion, and Hydration Effects for the Incorporation of Locked Nucleic Acid Nucleotides into DNA Duplexes". Biochemistry 45 (23): 7347-55. doi:10.1021/bi060307w.
Nucleobases: Purine (Adenine, Guanine) | Pyrimidine (Uracil, Thymine, Cytosine)
Nucleosides: Adenosine/Deoxyadenosine | Guanosine/Deoxyguanosine | Uridine | Thymidine | Cytidine/Deoxycytidine
Nucleotides: monophosphates (AMP, GMP, UMP, CMP) | diphosphates (ADP, GDP, UDP, CDP) | triphosphates (ATP, GTP, UTP, CTP) | cyclic (cAMP, cGMP, cADPR)
Deoxynucleotides: monophosphates (dAMP, dGMP, TMP, dCMP) | diphosphates (dADP, dGDP, TDP, dCDP) | triphosphates (dATP, dGTP, TTP, dCTP)
Ribonucleic acids: RNA | mRNA (pre-mRNA/hnRNA) | tRNA | rRNA | gRNA | miRNA | ncRNA | piRNA | shRNA | siRNA | snRNA | snoRNA
Deoxyribonucleic acids: DNA | cDNA | gDNA | msDNA | mtDNA
Nucleic acid analogues: GNA | LNA | PNA | TNA | morpholino
Cloning vectors: phagemid | plasmid | lambda phage | cosmid | P1 phage | fosmid | BAC | YAC | HAC
  This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Locked_nucleic_acid". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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