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Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a blood product administered intravenously. It contains the pooled IgG immunoglobulins (antibodies extracted from the plasma of over a thousand blood donors). IVIG's effects last between 2 weeks and 3 months. It is mainly used as treatment in three major categories:
Additional recommended knowledge
Mechanism of action
IVIG is given as a plasma protein replacement therapy (IgG) for immune deficient patients which have decreased or abolished antibody production capabilities. IVIG is administered to maintain adequate antibodies levels to prevent infections and confers a passive immunity. Treatment is given every 3-4 weeks.
Additionally, the donor antibody may bind directly with the abnormal host antibody, stimulating its removal. Alternatively, the massive quantity of antibody may stimulate the host's complement system, leading to enhanced removal of all antibodies, including the harmful ones. IVIG also blocks the antibody receptors on immune cells (macrophages), leading to decreased damage by these cells, or regulation of macrophage phagocytosis.
IVIG may also regulate the immune response by reacting with a number of membrane receptors on T cells, B cells, and monocytes that are pertinent to autoreactivity and induction of tolerance to self.
A recent report stated that IVIG application to activated T cells leads to their decreased ability to engage microglia. As a result of IVIG treatment of T cells, the findings showed reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 in T cell-microglia co-culture. The results add to the understanding of how IVIG may affect inflammation of the central nervous system in autoimmune inflammatory diseases.
Uses of IVIG
Dosage of IVIG is dependent on indication.
For primary immune dysfunction 100 to 400 mg/kg of body weight every 3 to 4 weeks is implemented.
For neurological and autoimmune diseases 2 grams per kilogram of body weight is implemented for three to six months over a five day course once a month. Then maintenance therapy of 100 to 400 mg/kg of body weight every 3 to 4 weeks follows.
Complications and side effects
Complications of IVIG therapy include
5. Noah S Scheinfeld. Intravenous Immunoglobulin. Emedicine. http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3546.htm
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Intravenous_immunoglobulin". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|