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Inappropriate sinus tachycardia
Inappropriate sinus tachycardia (IST) is an uncommon type of cardiac arrhythmia, within the category of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). The mechanism and primary etiology of Inappropriate sinus tachycardia has not been fully elucidated. The mechanism of the arrhythmia primarily involves the Sinus Node and peri-nodal tissue1 and does not require the AV Node (Atrioventricular node) for maintenance. Treatments in the form of pharmacological therapy or Catheter ablation are available, although it is currently difficult to treat successfully.
Additional recommended knowledge
Symptoms reported by patients vary in frequency and severity.
Symptoms associated with Inappropriate sinus tachycardia include:
No formal diagnostic criteria exist. A diagnosis of Inappropriate sinus tachycardia is primarily one of exclusion and the following may be observed:
IST has been treated both pharmacologically and invasively, with varying degrees of success.
Some types of medication tried by cardiologists and other physicians include: Beta blockers, Calcium channel blockers and Antiarrhythmic agents. Some SSRI drugs are also occasionally tried and also treatments more commonly used to treat Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome such as Fludrocortisone. This approach is very much "trial-and-error". Patients with IST are often intolerant to Beta blockers. A new selective sinus node inhibitor Ivabradine is also being used to treat IST.
Invasive treatments include forms of Catheter ablation such as Sinus Node Modification2 (selective ablation of the Sinus Node), Complete Sinus Node Ablation (with associated implantation of a Permanent Artificial pacemaker) and AV Node Ablation in very resistant cases (creation of iatrogenic complete heart block, necessitating implantation of a Permanent Artificial pacemaker).
Note 1: Sato T, Mitamura H, Murata M, Shinagawa K, Miyoshi S, Kanki H, Takatsuki S, Soejima K, Miyazaki T, Ogawa S. Electrophysiologic findings of a patient with inappropriate sinus tachycardia cured by selective radiofrequency catheter ablation. J Electrocardiol. 2000 Oct;33(4):381-6. Medline Abstract
Note 2: Lee RJ. Kalman JM. Fitzpatrick AP. Epstein LM. Fisher WG. Olgin JE. Lesh MD. Scheinman MM. Radiofrequency catheter modification of the sinus node for "inappropriate" sinus tachycardia. Circulation. 92(10):2919-28, 1995. Circulation Abstract
Yusuf S, Camm AJ. Deciphering the sinus tachycardias. Clin Cardiol. 2005 Jun;28(6):267-76. Review. Medline Abstract
AM Still, P Raatikainen, A Ylitalo, H Kauma, M Ikaheimo, Y Antero Kesaniemi, and HV Huikuri. Prevalence, characteristics and natural course of inappropriate sinus tachycardia. Europace, March 1, 2005; 7(2): 104-12. Medline Abstract
Leon H, Guzman JC, Kuusela T, Dillenburg R, Kamath M, Morillo CA. Impaired baroreflex gain in patients with inappropriate sinus tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 Jan;16(1):64-8. Erratum in: J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005 Feb;16(2):109. Medline Abstract
Sanchez-Quintana D, Cabrera JA, Farre J, Climent V, Anderson RH, Ho SY. Sinus node revisited in the era of electroanatomical mapping and catheter ablation. Heart. 2005 Feb;91(2):189-94. Medline Abstract
Cruz Filho FE, Maia IG, Fagundes ML, Boghossian S, Ribeiro JC. Arq Bras Cardiol. Sinus node modification by catheter using radiofrequency current in a patient with inappropriate sinus tachycardia. Evaluation of early and late results. 1998 Mar;70(3):173-6. Portuguese. Medline Abstract
Shih-Huang Lee1, Jun-Jack Cheng1, Peiliang Kuan1, Chi-Ren Hung. Radiofrequency Catheter Modification of Sinus Node for Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia: A Case Report. Chin Med J (Taipei) ;60:117-23. 1997. Full Text Article
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Inappropriate_sinus_tachycardia". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|