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Fibronectin




Fibronectin 1
PDB rendering based on 1e88.
Available structures: 1e88, 1e8b, 1fbr, 1fna, 1fnf, 1fnh, 1j8k, 1o9a, 1oww, 1q38, 1qgb, 1qo6, 1ttf, 1ttg, 2cg6, 2cg7, 2cku, 2fn2, 2fnb, 2gee, 2h41, 2h45, 2ha1
Identifiers
Symbol(s) FN1; CIG; DKFZp686F10164; DKFZp686H0342; DKFZp686I1370; DKFZp686O13149; FINC; FN; LETS; MSF
External IDs OMIM: 135600 MGI: 95566 Homologene: 1533
RNA expression pattern

More reference expression data

Orthologs
Human Mouse
Entrez 2335 14268
Ensembl ENSG00000115414 ENSMUSG00000026193
Uniprot P02751 Q3UZF9
Refseq NM_002026 (mRNA)
NP_002017 (protein)
NM_010233 (mRNA)
NP_034363 (protein)
Location Chr 2: 215.93 - 216.01 Mb Chr 1: 71.52 - 71.59 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]

Fibronectin is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein containing about 5% carbohydrate that binds to membrane spanning receptor proteins called integrins. In addition to integrins, they also bind extracellular matrix components such as collagen, fibrin and heparan sulfate.[1]

Fibronectin can be found in the blood plasma in its soluble form which is composed of two 250 kDa subunits joined together by disulfide bonds. Plasma fibronectin is made in the liver by hepatocytes. The insoluble form that was formerly called cold-insoluble globulin is a large complex of cross-linked subunits.

There are several isoforms of fibronectin all of which are the product of a single gene. The structure of these isoforms are made of three types of repeated internal regions called I, II and III which exhibit different lengths and presence or absence of disulfide bonds. Alternative splicing of the Pre-mRNA leads to the combination of these three types of regions but also to a variable region.

Fibronectin is involved in the wound healing process and so can be used as a therapeutic agent. It is also one of the few proteins for which production increases with age without any associated pathology. Fibronectin is also found in normal human saliva, which helps prevent colonization of the oral cavity and pharynx by potentially pathogenic bacteria.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Fibronectin and cancer

Fibronectin has been implicated in carcinoma development.[2] In lung carcinoma, fibronectin expression is increased, especially in non–small cell lung carcinoma. The adhesion of lung carcinoma cells to fibronectin enhances tumorigenicity and confers resistance to apoptosis induced by standard chemotherapeutic agents. Fibronectin has been shown to stimulate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), which is capable of controlling the expression of cyclin D and related genes involved in cell cycle control. This suggests that fibronectin promotes lung tumor growth/survival and resistance to therapy and could represent a novel target for the development of new anticancer drugs.

Structure of fibronectin

Fibronectin is composed of two similar polypeptide chains of approximately 30 modules. These polypeptide chains are attached by disulfide bridges, and are folded into a linear series of 5 or 6 functional units. These functional units contain interaction sites for other Extracellular components or cell surface molecules.

Functions of fibronectin

Other than the ones stated previously, Fibronectin has numerous functions that ensure the normal functioning of life. One of its more notable functions is its role as a 'guide' in cellular migration pathways in mammalian development, particularly the Neural Crest (ectoderm cells that will develop into skin pigment cells as well as some bones of the skull). Fibronectin helps maintain the shape of cells by lining up and organizing intracellular cytoskeleton by means of receptors. It helps stabilize the attachment of ECM (Extracellular matrix) to cells by acting as binding sites for cell surface receptors. More generally though, Fibronectin helps create a cross-linked network within the Extracellular Matrix by having binding sites for other ECM components.

References

  1. ^ Lyon M, Rushton G. et al. (2000). "Elucidation of the structural features of heparan sulfate important for interaction with the Hep-2 domain of fibronectin.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (7): 4599-4606. PMID 10671486.
  2. ^ Han S, Khuri F, Roman J (2006). "Fibronectin stimulates non-small cell lung carcinoma cell growth through activation of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin/S6 kinase and inactivation of LKB1/AMP-activated protein kinase signal pathways". Cancer Res 66 (1): 315-23. PMID 16397245.

Further reading

  • ffrench-Constant C (1996). "Alternative splicing of fibronectin--many different proteins but few different functions.". Exp. Cell Res. 221 (2): 261-71. doi:10.1006/excr.1995.1374. PMID 7493623.
  • Snásel J, Pichová I (1997). "The cleavage of host cell proteins by HIV-1 protease.". Folia Biol. (Praha) 42 (5): 227-30. PMID 8997639.
  • Schor SL, Schor AM (2003). "Phenotypic and genetic alterations in mammary stroma: implications for tumour progression.". Breast Cancer Res. 3 (6): 373-9. PMID 11737888.
  • Przybysz M, Katnik-Prastowska I (2002). "[Multifunction of fibronectin]". Postȩpy higieny i medycyny doświadczalnej 55 (5): 699-713. PMID 11795204.
  • Rameshwar P, Oh HS, Yook C, et al. (2003). "Substance p-fibronectin-cytokine interactions in myeloproliferative disorders with bone marrow fibrosis.". Acta Haematol. 109 (1): 1-10. PMID 12486316.
  • Cho J, Mosher DF (2006). "Role of fibronectin assembly in platelet thrombus formation.". J. Thromb. Haemost. 4 (7): 1461-9. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2006.01943.x. PMID 16839338.
  • Schmidt DR, Kao WJ (2007). "The interrelated role of fibronectin and interleukin-1 in biomaterial-modulated macrophage function.". Biomaterials 28 (3): 371-82. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2006.08.041. PMID 16978691.
  • Dallas SL, Chen Q, Sivakumar P (2006). "Dynamics of assembly and reorganization of extracellular matrix proteins.". Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 75: 1-24. doi:10.1016/S0070-2153(06)75001-3. PMID 16984808.

See also

  • Fetal fibronectin
  • Fibronectin type II domain
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Fibronectin". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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