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Carrion flowers or Stinking flowers are flowers that emit an odor that smells like rotting flesh. While a typical flower may be stereotyped as a colorful, sweet-smelling structure that attracts insects and rewards them with pollen or nectar, this scenario is somewhat perverted for carrion flowers because of the repulsive nature of the scent to most humans. Carrion flowers attract mostly scavenging flies and beetles as pollinators. Some species may trap the insects temporarily to ensure the gathering and transfer of pollen.
Additional recommended knowledge
Plants known as "carrion flower"
Many plants in the genus Amorphophallus (family Araceae) are known as carrion flowers. titan arum (Amorphophallus titanum) which has the world's largest flower head, is also carrion flower. Rather than a single flower, the titan arum presents an inflorescence or compound flower composed of a spadix or stalk of small and anatomically reduced male and female flowers, surrounded by a spathe that resembles a single giant petal. This plant has a mechanism to heat up the spadix to enhance the emission of the strong odor of decaying meat to attract its pollinators, carrion-eating beetles and "flesh flies" (family Sarcophagidae).
Flowers of plants in the genus Rafflesia (family Rafflesiaceae) emit a repulsive odor, similar to that of rotting meat. This odor attracts the flies that pollinate the plant. The world's largest single bloom is R. arnoldii. This rare flower is found in the rainforests of Indonesia. It can grow to be 3 feet across and weigh up to 15 pounds. R. arnoldii is a parasitic plant on Tetrastigma vine, which grows only in primary rainforests with no visible leaves, roots, or stem. It does not photosynthesize, but rather uses the host plant to obtain water and nutrients.
Plants in the genus Stapelia are also called "carrion flowers". They are small, spineless, cactus-like succulent plants. Most species are native to South Africa, and are grown as potted plants elsewhere. The flowers of all species are hairy to varying degrees and generate the odor of rotten flesh. The color of the flowers also mimics rotting meat. This attracts scavenging flies, for pollination. The flowers in some species can be very large, notably Stapelia gigantea can reach 30 cm (12 inches) in diameter.
Smilax or Nemexia
In North America, the herbaceous vines of the genus Smilax are known as Carrion flowers. These plants have a cluster of small greenish flowers. The most familiar member of this groups is Smilax herbacea. These plants are sometimes placed in the genus Nemexia.
The sources of the flowers' unique scent is not fully identified, partly due to the extremely low concentration of the compounds (5 to 10 parts per billion), but simple amines present in decaying flesh, the appropriately named putrescine and cadaverine, are known to be present. Dimethyl sulfides, including disulfide and trisulfide have been detected in Amorphophallus.
Other plants with carrion-scented flowers
Stinkhorn- fungi that use the same basic principle for spore dispersal.
Categories: Pollination | Plants and pollinators
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Carrion_flower". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|