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Alternative therapies for developmental and learning disabilities



Alternative therapies for developmental and learning disabilities include a range of practices used in the treatment of dyslexia, ADHD, Asperger syndrome, autism, Down syndrome and other developmental and learning disabilities. Alternative therapies have little support in research. Such therapies are usually based on theories that have not gained widespread acceptance among scholars; some scholars may call them "controversial" and those applying scientific skepticism may classify them as "pseudoscience".

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Treatment needs

There are a number of non-standard treatments for developmental and learning disabilities. There is a call for alternative therapies particularly when a condition lacks a reliable remediation. For example, in 1987, applied behavior analysis (ABA) which is regarded as the most effective therapy for autism, was reported to help only 47% of the patients, and there is currently a debate whether the effectiveness has been exaggerated.[citation needed] On the other hand, some alternative therapies, such as gluten-free, casein-free diets, may be appealing to some parents because the treatment recommended by most experts is thought to be "cold and manipulative". [1] Parents may also consider a drug treatment for attention deficit as avoidable. Alternative treatments to a stimulant medication range from natural products to psychotherapeutic techniques and highly technological interventions. It has been argued that although texts that promote alternative therapies do not directly accuse parents of inadequacy, the claims that the disability is caused by certain factors, such as poor nutrition, supports the culture of mother-blame.[2]

From 12% to 64% of families of a child with ADHD use an alternative therapy, with the lower estimates likely come from narrower definitions of CAM.[3] School teachers, family and friends are the most common source of suggestion of alternative therapies for ADHD.[4] In 2003, 64 percent of families of a child with special health care needs reported that they use alternative therapies. These therapies included spiritual healing, massage, chiropractic, herbs and special diets, homeopathy, self hypnosis and other methods of complementary and alternative medicine. The need for an alternative therapy was related to the child’s condition and to its evaluation as repairable or not.[5]

Complementary medicine

Unlike conventional medicine, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) does not rely on scientific evidence and is not proven to be safe and effective. Some therapists who advocate CAM may claim to cure many conditions or disabilities that are not diseases and therefore cannot be "cured".[citation needed]

While some experts encourage parents to be open-minded, others argue that treatments and services with no proven efficiency have opportunity costs because they displace the opportunity to participate in efficient treatments and services.[6] According to Scott O. Lilienfeld, "many individuals who spend large amounts of time and money on ineffective treatments may be left with precious little of either. As a result, they may forfeit the opportunity to obtain treatments that could be more helpful. Thus, even ineffective treatments that are by themselves innocuous can indirectly produce negative consequences."[7]

Alleged benefits

There is often little or no scientific evidence for effectiveness of alternative therapies.[8] It may be difficult to separate the success of a specific treatment from natural development or from the benefits of the individual's positive attitude. Some phenomena to be considered when evaluating studies are the placebo effect, the Hawthorne effect and different types of attentional and motivational effects. However, there is no doubt that people with disabilities may benefit from some alternative therapies, at least for relaxation, social interaction, personal development and self-esteem. This can be important because many children with learning difficulties suffer from low self-esteem.

For instance, a randomised controlled trial with dyslexic children was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of Sunflower therapy which includes applied kinesiology, physical manipulation, massage, homeopathy, herbal remedies and neuro-linguistic programming. There were no significant improvements in cognitive nor literacy test performance associated with the treatment, but there were significant improvements in self-esteem for the treatment group. This study did not control for the placebo effect.[9]

Precautions

Because many alternative therapies have not been evaluated in scientific studies there may be no guarantee for their safety. In most countries, with the exception of osteopathy and chiropractic, complementary medical disciplines have not been state registered. This means there is no law to forbid anyone from setting up as a practitioner even with no qualification nor experience. There are also a lot of 'universities' offering all kinds of alternative medicine degrees for a fee, and their certificates can look very real. These organisations may, on the other hand, offer ongoing training and an insurance to their registered members.

Experts of alternative therapies advice customers to be careful when choosing a therapist. Before taking a therapy, it is wise to find out whether or not previous customers recommend it, the therapist has a qualification and is a registered practitioner, whether the therapy could be dangerous, how much the treatment costs, and whether money will be refunded if the therapy does not work.

See also

References

  1. ^ Vyse, Stuart (2005), , in Jacobson, Foxx & Mulick, , Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, ISBN 0-8058-4192-X.
  2. ^ Malacrida (2002). "Alternative Therapies and Attention Deficit Disorder: Discourses of Maternal Responsibility and Risk". Gender & Society 16 (3): 366-385.
  3. ^ Weber W, Newmark S (2007). "Complementary and alternative medical therapies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism". Pediatr Clin North Am 54 (6): 983–1006. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2007.09.006. PMID 18061787.
  4. ^ Stubberfield (1999). "Utilization of alternative therapies in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder". Journal of paediatrics and child health 35 (5): 450-453.
  5. ^ Sanders et al. (2003). "Use of Complementary and Alternative Medical Therapies Among Children With Special Health Care Needs in Southern Arizona". Pediatrics 111 (3): 584-587.
  6. ^ Newsom C. and Hovanovitz C. A. (2005), , in Jacobson, Foxx & Mulick, , Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, ISBN 0-8058-4192-X.
  7. ^ Lilienfeld S. O. (2002). "Our Raison d’Être". The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice 1 (1).
  8. ^ Lack of scientific evidence for CAM:
    • Angley M, Semple S, Hewton C, Paterson F, McKinnon R (2007). "Children and autism—part 2—management with complementary medicines and dietary interventions" (PDF). Aust Fam Physician 36 (10): 827–30. PMID 17925903.
    • Herbert JD, Sharp IR, Gaudiano BA (2002). "Separating fact from fiction in the etiology and treatment of autism: a scientific review of the evidence". S ci Rev Ment Health Pract 1 (1): 23–43.
    • Schechtman MA (2007). "Scientifically unsupported therapies in the treatment of young children with autism spectrum disorders" (PDF). Pediatr Ann 36 (8): 497–8, 500–2, 504–5. PMID 17849608.
  9. ^ Bull, L. (February 2007). "Sunflower therapy for children with specific learning difficulties (dyslexia): A randomised, controlled trial". Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice (1): 15–24.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Alternative_therapies_for_developmental_and_learning_disabilities". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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