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Phenothiazine, also called dibenzothiazine or thiodiphenylamine is a yellow or green crystalline compound soluble in hot acetic acid, benzene, and ether. It is a three-ring structure compound in which two benzene rings are joined by a sulfur and nitrogen atom at nonadjacent positions. It is obtained by fusing diphenylamine with sulfur.
It is a benzo derivative of thiazine although thiazine itself is not used as a starting point in the manufacturing of this molecule.
It is a semi-volatile organic compound and environmental toxicant of concern to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. 
It is commonly used as an intermediate chemical in the manufacture of various antipsychotic neuroleptic psychotropic drugs. It originally was developed as a synthetic dye in 1883, and it was introduced by DuPont as an insecticide in 1935.  It is sometimes used as an antihelminthic in livestock. It is used as an industrial chemical in the manufacture of rubber additives. 
Phenothiazine pesticides work by affecting the nervous system of insects, inhibiting the breakdown of acetylcholine by disabling the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Many of the side effects of phenothiazine neuroleptic antipsychotics are due to their anticholinergic blocking effects. 
Phenothiazine is also a potent alpha-adrenergic blocking agent.
Synonyms for the chemical phenothiazine
Dibenzoparathiazine; Thiodiphenylamine; AFI-Tiazin; Agrazine; Antiverm; Biverm; Dibenzothiazine; Orimon; Lethelmin; Souframine; Nemazene; Vermitin; Padophene; Fenoverm; Phenovarm; Fentiazine; Contaverm; Fenothiazine, Ieeno; ENT 38; Helmetina; Helmetine, Penthazine; XL-50; Wurm-thional; Fentiazin; Padophene; Phenegic; Phenovis; Phenoxur; Reconox, Fenergan, Protazine; Thiergan 
The term "phenothiazines" is used to describe the largest of the five main classes of neuroleptic antipsychotic drugs. These drugs have antipsychotic and, often, antiemetic properties, although they may also cause severe side effects such as akathisia, tardive dyskinesia, extrapyramidal symptoms, and the rare but potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome as well as substantial weight gain.
The phenothiazine class of neuroleptic antipsychotic psychotropics are closely related to the thioxanthenes which are very similar pharmacologically.
There are three groups of phenothiazine antipsychotics, differing by their chemical structure and their pharmacological effects. They are the aliphatic compounds, the piperidines and piperazines. An aliphatic compound, piperidine or piperazine branch is added to the phenothiazine molecule for the purpose of enhancing absorption and bioavailability of the phenothiazine chemical.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Phenothiazine". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|