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Chromobacterium violaceum is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, non-sporing coccobacillus. It is part of the normal flora of water and soil of tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. It produces a natural antibiotic called violacein. It grows readily on nutriet agar, producing distinctive smooth low convex colonies with a dark violet metallic sheen (due to violacein production). Its full genome was published in 2003.
C.violaceum rarely infects humans, but when it does it causes skin lesions, sepsis and liver abscesses that may be fatal. Care must be taken because Burkholderia pseudomallei is commonly misidentified as C. violaceum by many common identification methods. The two are readily distinguished because B. pseudomallei produces large wrinkled colonies.
C.violaceum produces a number of natural antibiotics:
Infection caused by C. violaceum is rare, therefore there are no clinical trials evaluating different treatments. Antibiotics that have been used to successfully treat C. violaceum include pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and co-trimoxazole. Other antibiotics that appear to be effective in vitro include chloramphenicol and tetracycline. For theoretical reasons, infection would not be expected to respond to penicillins, cephalosporins or aztreonam, although carbapenems like meropenem or imipenem may possibly work.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Chromobacterium_violaceum". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|