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Whitten effect

The Whitten effect is a phenomenon observed by W. K. Whitten (1956, 1966, 1968) whereby male mouse pheromone-laden urine synchronizes the estrus cycle "among unisexually grouped females."

Although there is similarity with the McClintock effect, the latter does not posit a role for male pheromones. In addition, there is little evidence for a functioning vomeronasal system (thought to be the sensory organ that initiates the Bruce, Vandenbergh, and Whitten effects) in humans. These differences, in putative stimulus and neural pathway (as well as species observed), stringently distinguishes the Whitten and McClintock effects.

See also


  1. Whitten WK. Modification of the oestrous cycle of the mouse by external stimuli associated with the male. J. Endocrinology. (1956) Jul;13(4)399-404. Journal code: 0375363. ISSN: 0022-0795
  2. Whitten WK. Effect of exteroceptive factors on the oestrous cycle of mice. Nature. 1957 Dec 21;180(4599):1436.
  3. Gangrade BK, Dominic CJ. Studies of the male-originating pheromones involved in the Whitten effect and Bruce effect in mice. Biol Reprod. 1984 Aug;31(1):89-96.[1]
  4. Whitten W.K. (1966) Pheromones and mammalian reproduction. Adv. Reprod. Physiol. 1:155-177.
  5. Whitten WK, Bronson FH, Greenstein JA. Estrus-inducing pheromone of male mice: transport by movement of air. Science. 1968 Aug 9;161(841):584-5.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Whitten_effect". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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