My watch list  

Spaced repetition

Spaced repetition is a learning technique in which increasing intervals of time are used between subsequent reviews. Alternative names include expanding rehearsal, graduated intervals, repetition spacing, repetition scheduling, spaced retrieval and expanded retrieval.


Practical applications of spaced repetition were first suggested in the book Psychology of Study by Prof. C. A. Mace in 1932.

Pimsleur language courses use spaced repetition techniques, and in the 1970s Sebastian Leitner devised his Leitner system, an all-purpose system based on flashcards.

More recently, spaced repetition has also been implemented into computer-assisted language learning software{facts} to gradually adapt the optimum spacing of repetitions to individual needs. A typical optimization criterion used in spaced repetition is the requested level of knowledge retention, i.e. percent of knowledge that is to be remembered.

There are several families of algorithms for scheduling spaced repetition:

  • Neural networks based
  • Sebastian Leitner system learning machines:
    • 5 stages
    • n stages
  • SM-family of algorithms (SuperMemo):
    • SM-0
    • SM-2
    • SM-4
    • SM-5
    • SM-6
    • SM-8
    • SM-11

Prominent researchers

  • Cecil Alec Mace
  • Hermann Ebbinghaus
  • Sebastian Leitner

See also

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Spaced_repetition". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE