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Penitrem A

Penitrem A
Other names Tremortin
CAS number 12627-35-9
PubChem 337313
SMILES CC(=C)C1C(C2C3(O2)C(O1)CCC4(C3(CCC5C4(C6=C7C5OC(C8CC9C8(C1=C7C(=CC(=C1CC9=C)Cl)N6)O)(C)C)C)O)C)O
Molecular formula C37H44ClNO6
Molar mass 634.20136
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Penitrem A (tremortin) is a fungal neurotoxin found on ryegrass. It is produced by certain species of Aspergillus, Claviceps, and Penicillium. It inhibits potassium channels in smooth muscles.[citation needed] The maxi-channels targeted have their highest density in the cerebellar Purkinje cells.

It causes a stagger in horses and cattle.


Effective dose

The ED50 for penitrem A is 10 nM.[citation needed] The ED50 is the effective dose for 50% of the population. Many toxic chemicals do not show ED-50s and act by irreversible covalent adduction.

Stages of toxicity

See also


  • Walter SL (2002). "Acute penitrem A and roquefortine poisoning in a dog". Can. Vet. J. 43 (5): 372–4. PMID 12001505.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Penitrem_A". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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