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Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution

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Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution is a book by Peter Kropotkin on the subject of mutual aid, written while he was living in exile in England. It was first published by William Heinemann in London in October 1902. The individual chapters had originally been published in 1890-96 as a series of essays in the British monthly literary magazine, Nineteenth Century.

Additional recommended knowledge

Written partly in response to Social Darwinism and in particular to Thomas H. Huxley's Nineteenth Century essay, "The Struggle for Existence," Kropotkin's book drew on his experiences in scientific expeditions in Siberia to illustrate the phenomenon of cooperation. After examining the evidence of cooperation in animals, "savages," "barbarians," in medieval cities, and in modern times, he concludes that cooperation and mutual aid are as important in the evolution of the species as competition and mutual strife, if not more so.


  • Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, 1955 paperback (reprinted 2005), includes Kropotkin's 1914 preface, Foreword and Bibliography by Ashley Montagu, and The Struggle for Existence, by Thomas H. Huxley, Boston: Extending Horizons Books, Porter Sargent Publishers. ISBN 0-87558-024-6. 
  • Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution, 1998 paperback, London: Freedom Press. ISBN 0-900384-36-0. 

See also

  • Anarchism
  • Psychological egoism
  • Mutual aid
  • Sociobiology
  • Evolutionary psychology
  • UNESCO 1950 statement, The Race Question
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Mutual_Aid:_A_Factor_of_Evolution". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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