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The milder degrees of confusion as pathological symptoms, are relative to previous function. Thus (for example) a mathematician confused about manipulation of simple fractions, may be showing pathology which would not be diagnosable in a person without training in this area. Thus, as with the case of delirium, the minor degrees of pathological confusion cannot be diagnosed without knowledge of a person's "baseline", or normal, level of mental functioning.
Confusion may result from a relatively sudden brain dysfunction (see delirium). It may also result from chronic organic brain pathologies such as dementia. In either case, confusion is usually associated with some degree of loss of ability to focus attention, but (as noted) the association is not invariable, especially for lesser degrees of impairment.
Many health problems may cause the syndromes of delirium or dementia. These syndromes may also occur together, and both of them usually include the symptom of confusion. Since mental function is extremely sensitive to health, the appearance of either a new confused state, or a new loss of ability to focus attention (delirium), may indicate that a new physical or mental illness has appeared, or that a chronic physical or mental illness has progressed (become more severe).
Additional recommended knowledge
Confusion, like inability to focus attention, is a very general and nonspecific symptom of brain or mental dysfunction. In addition to many organic causes of confusion relating to a structural defect or a metabolic problem in the brain (analogous to hardware problems in a computer), there are also some psychiatric causes of confusion, which may also include a component of mental or emotional stress, mental disease, or other "programming" problems (analogous to software problems in a computer).
Causes of confusion are too many to list by specific pathology. However general categories of possible causes of mental confusion include:
Gross structural brain disorders
General metabolic causes
Lack of essential metabolic fuels, nutrients, etc.
Possible co-existing symptoms
Confusion is a symptom. It may range from mild to severe. The confused state may include also:
Confusion is a symptom, like shortness of breath or pain. Like other symptoms, the cure relates to the underlying cause.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Mental_confusion". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|