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Laminaria



Laminaria

Laminaria hyperborea
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Protista
Division: Heterokontophyta
Class: Phaeophyceae
Order: Laminariales
Family: Laminariaceae
Genus: Laminaria
J. V. Lamouroux
Species

c. 30 species; see text

Laminaria is a genus of 31 brown algae species (Phaeophyceae), all sharing the common name "kelp". This economically important genus is characterized by long, leathery laminae and relatively large size. Some species are referred to by the common name Devil's apron, due to their shape,[1], or sea colander, due to the perforations present on the lamina.[2] It is found in the north Atlantic Ocean and the northern Pacific Ocean at depths from 8 m to 30 m (exceptionally to 120 m in the warmer waters of the Mediterranean Sea and off Brazil).[3]

Additional recommended knowledge

The life history of Laminaria shows two stages: a large diploid sporophyte and a very small and microscopic haploid microthallus. The large phase is a diploid sporophyte, and after meiosis it produces gametes with flagella. Half of these grow into male and half into female gametophytes. They grow to form microscopic branched filaments. The male gametophytes bear small unicellular antheridia which fertilize the egg cell which is extruded from the oogonium, but remains attached to it. The zygote then develops and grows to become the sporophyte. [4][5]

Laminaria is used in the production of potassium chloride and iodine. Dried laminaria sticks can be used medicinally to induce dilation of the cervix[citation needed]. It is also a nutritious food, and is often used (especially the species Laminaria japonica) in Japanese Cuisine.


 


Species

There are around 30 species in the genus Laminaria [6] some of which are sometimes split off as the genus Saccharina[7]

  • Laminaria abyssalis A.B. Joly & E.C. Oliveira — Atlantic South America [8][9]
  • Laminaria agardhii Kjellman [10] — Atlantic North America [11]
  • Laminaria angustata Kjellman — Japan[12][13]
  • Laminaria appressirhiza J. E. Petrov & V. B. Vozzhinskaya [14]
  • Laminaria brasiliensis A. B. Loly & E. C. Oliveira
  • Laminaria brongardiana Postels & Ruprecht [15]
  • Laminaria bulbosa J. V. Lamouroux
  • Laminaria bullata Kjellman
  • Laminaria complanata (Setchell & N. L. Garder) Muenscher
  • Laminaria dentigera Kjellm. — North American Pacific: Bering Strait to Baja California [16]
  • Laminaria diabolica Miyabe
  • Laminaria digitata (Hudson) J. V. Lamouroux
  • Laminaria ephemera Setchell — North American Pacific: Vancouver to California [16]
  • Laminaria farlowii Setchell — North American Pacific shores [16]
  • Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie
  • Laminaria inclinatorhiza J. Petrov & V. Vozzhinskaya
  • Laminaria japonica J. E. Areschoug — Japan [12][17]
  • Laminaria multiplicata J. Petrov & M. Suchovejeva
  • Laminaria nigripes J. Agardh
  • Laminaria ochroleuca Bachelot de la Pylaie
  • Laminaria pallida Greville — South Africa [18], Indian Ocean, Canary Islands and Tristan da Cunha [19]
  • Laminaria platymeris Bachelot de la Pylaie
  • Laminaria rodriguezii Barnet
  • Laminaria ruprechtii (Areschoug) Setchell
  • Laminaria saccharina (Linnaeus) J.V. Lamouroux
  • Laminaria sachalinensis (Miyabe) Miyabe
  • Laminaria setchellii P. C. Silva
  • Laminaria sinclairii (Harvey ex J. D. Hooker & Harvey) Farlow, Anderson & Eaton — North America Pacific shores [16]
  • Laminaria solidugula J. Agardh
  • Laminaria yezoensis Miyabe

British Isles

Four species of Laminaria have been recorded from the British Isles — Laminaria digitata, L. hyperborea, L. ochroleuca and L. saccharina. The occurrence of Laminaria longricruris in the British Isles has not yet been confirmed. [20]


References

  1. ^ ["http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Devil's+apron" "Definition of Devil's Apron by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus, and Encyclopedia"].
  2. ^ ["http://www.wellbeingbeingwell.co.uk/sea_vegetables/devil.html" "Devil's apron - Sea Vegetable"].
  3. ^ M. D. Guiry. Kelps: Laminaria and Saccharina. www.seaweed.ie.
  4. ^ C. van den Hoek, D. G. Mann & H. M. Jahns (1995). Algae: An Introductiom to Phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-30419-9. 
  5. ^ J. Mondragon & J. Mondragon (2003). Seaweeds of the Pacific Coast. Sea Challengers, Monterey, Califiornia. ISBN 0-930118-29-4. 
  6. ^ I. Bartsch & M. D. Guiry (2006-10-27). Laminaria J.V. Lamouroux 1813: 40. AlgaeBase.
  7. ^ C. E. Lane, C. Mayes, L. D. Druehl, G. W. Saunders (2006). A multi-gene molecular investigation of the kelp (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) supports substantial taxonomic re-organization. Journal of Phycology 42 (2): 493–512. doi:10.1111/j.1529-8817.2006.00204.x.
  8. ^ Y. Yoneshigue-Valentin (1990). The life cycle of Laminaria abyssalis (Laminariales, Phaeophyta) in culture. Hydrobiologia 204–205: 461–466. doi:10.1007/BF00040271.
  9. ^ M. D. Guiry (2006-03-26). Laminaria abyssalis A. B. Joly & E. B. Oliveira. AlgaeBase.
  10. ^ M. D. Guiry (2004-09-23). Laminaria agardhii Kjellman. AlgaeBase.
  11. ^ Taylor (1957). Marine Algae of Northeastern Coast of North America. Ann Arbor. ISBN 0-472-04904-6. 
  12. ^ a b T. Tori (1998). An Illustrated Atlas of the Life History of Algae. Uchida Rokakuho Publishing Co., Ltd. Tokyo. ISBN 4-7536-4057-4. 
  13. ^ M. D. Guiry & Wendy Guiry (2006-09-29). Laminaria angustata Kjellman. AlgaeBase.
  14. ^ M. D. Guiry & Olga Selivanova (2006-09-19). Laminaria appressirhiza J. E. Petrov & V. B. Vozzhinskaya. AlgaeBase.
  15. ^ M. D. Guiry (2006-04-24). Laminaria brongardiana Postels & Ruprecht. AlgaeBase.
  16. ^ a b c d I. A. Abbott & G. J. Hollenberg (1976). Marine Algae of California. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California. ISBN 0-8047-0867-3. 
  17. ^ M. D. Guiry & Wendy Guiry (2006-09-29). Laminaria japonica J. E. Areschoug. AlgaeBase.
  18. ^ H. Stegenga, J. J. Bolton & R. J. Anderson (1997). Seaweeds of the South Africal West Coast. Bolus Herbarium Number 18, University of Cape Town. 
  19. ^ M. D. Guiry (2004-09-23). Laminaria pallida Greville. AlgaeBase.
  20. ^ F. G. Hardy & M. D. Guiry (2006). A Check-list and Atlas of the Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland. British Phycological Society, London. ISBN 3-906166-35-X. 
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Laminaria". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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