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Jan Janský

  prof. MUDr. Jan Janský (IPA: [ˈjan ˈjanski:]) (April 3 1873, Prague – September 8 1921, Černošice near Prague) was a Czech serologist, neurologist and psychiatrist. He is credited with the first classification of blood into the four types (A, B, AB, O) of the ABO blood group system.

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Janský studied medicine at Charles University in Prague. From 1899 he worked in a psychiatric clinic in Prague. In 1914 he was named professor. During World War I Janský served two years as a doctor at the front until a heart attack disabled him. After the war he worked as a neuropsychiatrist in a military Hospital (Vojenská nemocnice). He had angina pectoralis and died of ischaemic heart disease.

Janský was also a proponent of voluntary blood donations.

Blood classification

Through his psychiatric research, Janský tried to find a correlation between mental diseases and blood diseases. He found no such correlation existed and published a study, Hematologická studie u psychotiků (1907, Hematological study of psychotics), in which he classified blood into four groups I, II, III, IV. At the time this discovery passed almost unnoticed. In 1921 an American medical commission acknowledged Janský's classification (over that of Karl Landsteiner, who classified blood into only three groups; and was for this (blood types) discovery awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1930). Janský's classification remains in use today. A similar classification was described by William Lorenzo Moss, except the I and IV of Moss were the opposite to that of Janský's, leading to confusion in blood transfusion until the use of A, B and O became standard. [1]


  • Frequent voluntary blood donors in The Czech Republic are awarded with Janský medal (Janského plaketa).


  1. ^ Crow J (1993). "Felix Bernstein and the first human marker locus". Genetics 133 (1): 4-7. PMID 8417988.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Jan_Janský". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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