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Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act

The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (or FIFRA), 7 U.S.C. § 136 et seq. is a United States federal law that set up the basic US system of pesticide regulation to protect applicators, consumers and the environment. It is administered by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the appropriate environmental agencies of the respective states. The current version of FIFRA underwent a major revision in 1972 and superseded the Federal Insecticide Act of 1910 and the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act of 1947. The act was amended somewhat in 1996 by the Food Quality Protection Act. In 1988, it was amended again to change pesticide registration laws and to require reregistration of certain pesticides that had been registered before 1984.[1]

When FIFRA was first passed in 1947, it gave the United States Department of Agriculture responsibility for regulating pesticides.[1] In 1972, when FIFRA underwent a major revision, it transferred responsibility of pesticide regulation to the Environmental Protection Agency and shifted emphasis to protection of the environment and public health.[1] The 1972 version is largely still in place.

FIFRA established a set of pesticide regulations: 1. FIFRA established registration for all pesticides, which is only done after a period of data collection to determine the effectiveness for its intended use, appropriate dosage, and hazards of the particular material. When registered, a label is created to instruct the final user the proper usage of the material. It is unlawful to use any pesticide not in accordance with the label; in other words, the label is the law.

Label directions are designed to maximize the effectiveness of the product, while protecting the applicator, consumers, and the environment. Critics of the process point out, on the one hand that the research to produce the label is entirely done by the manufacturer and not much checking is done on its accuracy. On the other hand some consider the process too strict. It costs millions of dollars and often several years to register a pesticide, which limits production only to large players. Likewise many smaller or specialty uses are never registered, because the companies do not consider the potential sales sufficient to justify the investment.

2. Only a few pesticides are available to the general public, and can be used by anyone who will follow directions. Most pesticides are considered too hazardous for general use, and are restricted to certified applicators. FIFRA established a system of examination and certification both at the private level and at the commercial level for applicators who wish to purchase and use restricted use pesticides. The distribution of restricted pesticides is also monitored.

3. The EPA has different review processes for three categories of pesticides: antimicrobials, biopesticides, and conventional pesticides. The three categories have a similar application process, but have different data requirements and review policies. Depending on the category of pesticide, the review process can take several years. After a pesticide is registered with the EPA, there may be state registration requirements to consider.

See also


  1. ^ a b c Willson, Harold R (February 23, 1996), Pesticide Regulations. University of Minnesota. Retrieved on 2007-10-15.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Federal_Insecticide,_Fungicide,_and_Rodenticide_Act". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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