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Concordance as used in genetics usually means the presence of the same trait in both members of a pair of twins. However, the strict definition is the probability that a pair of individuals will both have a certain characteristic, given that one of the pair has the characteristic. For example, twins are concordant when both have or both lack a given trait.
Additional recommended knowledge
A twin study examines the concordance rates of identical twins having the same trait, especially a disease. This can help determine whether the disease has a genetic cause. Controversial uses of twin data have looked at concordance rates for homosexuality and intelligence.
Because identical twins are genetically identical, it follows that any genetic mutation carried by one would also be carried by the other. If a characteristic identified in one twin is caused by a genetic mutation, then it should also be present in the other twin. Thus, the concordance rate of a given characteristic helps establish whether or to what extent it is caused by genetic mutation.
There are several problems with this assumption:
In genotyping studies where DNA is directly assayed for positions of variance (see SNP), concordance is a measure of the percentage of SNPs that are measured as identical. Samples from the same individual or identical twins theoretically have a concordance of 100%, but due to assaying errors and somatic mutations, they are usually found in the range of 99% to 99.95%. Concordance can therefore be used as a method of assessing the accuracy of a genotyping assay platform.
Because a child inherits half of its DNA from each parent, parents and children, siblings, and fraternal (dizygotic) twins have a concordance around 50% using this measure.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Concordance_(genetics)". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|