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Chaga mushroom



Chaga
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Fungi
Subkingdom: Dikarya
Phylum: Basidiomycota
Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Hymenochaetales
Family: Hymenochaetaceae
Genus: Inonotus
Species: I. obliquus
Binomial name
Inonotus obliquus
L.

The Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus), also known as tinder mushroom, is a fungus in Hymenochaetaceae family. It is a parasitic fungus of the Birch and other trees. The sterile conk is irregularly formed and has the appearance of burnt charcoal. It causes the tree's death in 5-7 years, and is known as "birch cancer" in Russia, but like many medicinal mushrooms contains many of its own anti-tumor compounds.[citation needed]

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Medicinal use

The antimutagenic action of the molecules found in the white part of birch bark where chaga feeds inhibit free-radical oxidation; and, induce the production of interferons, which help induce DNA repair. The substances, contained in white part of birch bark contribute to the decrease of hypoxia and to increase of the stability of organism to the oxygen deficiency, being antihypoxant correcting the metabolism of cells. The anti-cancer properties of betulin or betulinic acid, a chemical isolated from birch trees, is now being studied for use as a chemotherapeutic agent. Chaga contains large amounts of betulinic acid in a form that can be ingested orally, and it also contains the full spectrum of immune-stimulating phytochemicals found in other medicinal mushrooms such as maitake mushroom and shiitake mushroom.The earlienst evidence of chaga being used by humans comes from the 5600 year old "Ice Man" found in the Italian Alps[1]. Since the 16th century, there are records of Chaga Mushroom being used in folk medicine and the botanical medicine of the Eastern European countries as a remedy for cancer and gastritis, ulcers, tuberculosis (TB) of the bones. In 1958, scientific studies in Finland and Russia found this mushroom provided an epochal effect in breast cancer, liver cancer, uterine cancer, and gastric cancer, as well as in hypertension and diabetes. Herbalist David Winston maintains that it is the strongest anti-cancer medicinal mushroom.[2]

Research

In 1998 there was a study in Poland that demonstrated Chaga's inhibiting effects on tumor growth.[3] Noda et. al found that betulin seems to work highly selectively on tumor cells because the interior pH of tumor tissues is generally lower than that of normal tissues, and betulinic acid is only active at those lower levels. Fulda et al. found in 1997 that once inside the cells, betulinic acid induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the tumors.[4] In 2005 there was a study done at Department of Medical Nutrition in South Korea. The Chaga Mushroom was evaluated for their potential for protecting against oxidative damage to DNA in human lymphocytes. The study found that the polyphenolic extract protected these cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.[5] Another study that year found the endo-polysaccharide of Chaga produced indirect anti-cancer effects via immuno-stimulation. The mycelial endo-polysaccharide of I. obliquus was identified as a candidate for use as an immune response modifier and indicate that the anti-cancer effect of endo-polysaccharide is not directly tumorcidal but rather is immuno-stimulating.[6][7] It has also been demonstrated as anti-inflammatory.[8] Saitoh Akiko published on the antimutagenic effects of Chaga in 1996, and Mizuno et al. published on the anti tumor and hypoglycemic activities of the polysaccharides from the sclerotia and mycelia of Chaga.

Chaga grows in birch forests of Russia, Korea, Eastern Europe, Northern areas of the United States[9] and in the North Carolina mountains.

References

  1. ^ P.Stamets http://www.fungi.com/pdf/pdfs/articles/HerbalGram.pdf
  2. ^ [1]Tillotsen, Alan. Chaga Mushrooms (Inonotus obliquus)
  3. ^ Rzymowska, J. Effect of aueous extracts from Inonotus Obliquus on mitotic index and enzyme activities
  4. ^ [2]Tillotsen, Alan. Chaga Mushrooms (Inonotus obliquus)
  5. ^ [3] Cui Y; Kim DS; Park KC Antioxidant effects of Inonotus obliquus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 96(1-2):79-85 (ISSN: 0378-8741)
  6. ^ [4]Kim YO; Han SB; Lee HW; Ahn HJ; Yoon YD; Jung JK; Kim HM; Shin CS Immuno-stimulating effect of the endo-polysaccharide produced by submerged culture of Inonotus obliquus. Life Sci. 2005; 77(19):2438-56 (ISSN: 0024-3205)
  7. ^ [5]Kim YO; Park HW; Kim JH; Lee JY; Moon SH; Shin CS Anti-cancer effect and structural characterization of endo-polysaccharide from cultivated mycelia of Inonotus obliquus. Life Sci. 2006; 79(1):72-80 (ISSN: 0024-3205)
  8. ^ [6] Park YM; Won JH; Kim YH; Choi JW; Park HJ; Lee KT In vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of the methanol extract of Inonotus obliquus.J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 101(1-3):120-8 (ISSN: 0378-8741)
  9. ^ http://www.woodlandessence.com/herbal.htm

See also

External links

  • http://www.medscape.com/medline/abstract/15588653 Antioxidant effects of Inonotus obliquus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 96(1-2):79-85 (ISSN: 0378-8741)
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Chaga_mushroom". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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