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PubMed is a free search engine for accessing the MEDLINE database of citations and abstracts of biomedical research articles. The core subject is medicine, and PubMed covers fields related to medicine, such as nursing and other allied health disciplines. It also provides very full coverage of the related biomedical sciences, such as biochemistry and cell biology. It is offered by the United States National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Health as part of the Entrez information retrieval system. As with other indexes, the inclusion of an article in PubMed does not endorse that article's contents. In 2007 MEDLINE contained over 17,000,000 records from more than 5,000 journals published in the United States and more than 80 other countries primarily from 1950 onwards. In addition to MEDLINE, PubMed also offers access to
Many PubMed citations contain links to full text articles which are freely available, often in the PubMed Central digital library. In late 2007, the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2007 (H.R. 2764) was signed into law and included a provision requiring the NIH to modify its policies and require inclusion into PubMed Central complete electronic copies of their peer-reviewed research and findings from its funded research. This is the first time the US government has required an Agency to provide open access to research and is an evolution from the 2005 policy, in which the NIH asked researchers to voluntarily add the their research to PubMed Central.
PubMed is one of a number of search engines through which it is possible to search the MEDLINE database; the National Library of Medicine also leases the MEDLINE information to a number of private vendors such as Ovid and SilverPlatter--as well as many other vendors. PubMed has been available free on the Internet since the mid-1990s.
Information about the journals indexed in PubMed is found in its Journals Database, searchable by subject or journal title, Title Abbreviation, the NLM ID (NLM's unique journal identifier), the ISO abbreviation, and both the print and electronic International Standard Serial Numbers (pISSN and eISSN). The database includes all journals in all Entrez databases. PubMed has over 14 million citations.
For comprehensive, optimal searching in PubMed, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of its core component, MEDLINE, and especially of the MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) controlled vocabulary used to index MEDLINE articles.
However, simple telegram-style search formulations can also be used; they produce very acceptable results. PubMed automatically links textwords to relevant MeSH terms. Aspects of the question can then be added successively, in a Google-like fashion, until a number of ‘hits’ judged manageable is achieved. No knowledge of actual MeSH terms, Boolean operators, English or American spelling, ‘nesting’, or record-fields is required. PubMed’s intelligent search algorithm does (or implies) this in the background. Examples of such telegram-style questions and results they produce on PubMed:
Telegram-style question in PubMed search window: radial head fractures randomized
Result: 9 records found, one judged highly relevant
Telegram-style question in PubMed search window: glasziou fractures bmj 2007
Result: 1 record (the target) found
Telegram-style question in PubMed search window: vitreous body time death review
Result: 7 records found, several relevant, e.g.
Searching with Tags and Booleans
(For a complete list of tags, see Search Field Descriptions and Tags)
Search-field tags can be used for searching PubMed, some of the most common being:
The Boolean operators are AND (intersection), OR (union), or NOT (exclusion). NOT should be used with care as it may generate 'false-negative' results.
When no operator is used in a search formulation AND is assumed.
pnas [ta] drexler ke [au] 1981 [dp]
will yield a single reference, and is the equivalent of
pnas [ta] AND drexler ke [au] AND 1981 [dp]
pnas [ta] OR drexler ke [au] OR 1981 [dp]
will yield hundreds of thousands of articles, including all article published in 1981, all articles in PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences) and all articles by K.E. Drexler.
Citation Indexing in Pubmed
Although Pubmed is very popular and ostensibly has access to the largest literature database in its field, Pubmed searches do not include citation data for the journal articles. Commercial search engines such as Scopus, and Web of Science do provide this service, but they are not free. Citation data is provided by the free service Google Scholar, but it has limited search capabilities and incomplete coverage, both with respect to publishers and to years. So, some effort has been made to supplement Pubmed with citation index data via a Greasemonkey script, but it relies on the incomplete data in Google Scholar. A built-in functionality is not yet available.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "PubMed". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|