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Look up dysphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Dysphoria (from Greek δύσφορος (dysphoros), from δυσ-, difficult, and φέρω, to bear) is generally characterized as an unpleasant or uncomfortable mood, such as sadness (depressed mood), anxiety, irritability, or restlessness.[1] Etymologically, it is the opposite of euphoria.

Dysphoria refers only to a condition of mood and may be experienced in response to ordinary life events, such as illness or grief. Additionally, it is a feature of many psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and mood disorders. Dysphoria is usually experienced during depressive episodes, but in people with bipolar disorder, it may also be experienced during manic or hypomanic episodes.[2] Dysphoria in the context of a mood disorder indicates a heightened risk of suicide.[2]

Dysphoria can be chemically induced by substances including mu-opioid antagonists[3] and selective kappa-opioid agonists.[4] Dysphoria is also one of the symptoms of hypoglycemia.[citation needed]

Conditions related to dysphoria

The following conditions may include dysphoria as a major component or symptom.


  1. ^ Abbess;
  2. ^ a b c Read, 2006.
  3. ^
  4. ^ Metcalf & Coop, 2005.


  • Abbess, John F. Glossary of terms in the field of psychiatry and neurology. Retrieved on 2006-11-18.
  • "Dysphoria." Psychology Glossary.
  • Metcalf, Matthew; and Coop, Andrew (2005). "Kappa Opioid Antagonists: Past Successes and Future Prospects". The AAPS Journal 7 (3): E704-E722. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. ISSN 1522-1059. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
  • Read, Kimberly (2006). What is dysphoria?. Your Guide to Bipolar Disorder. Retrieved on 2006-11-19.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Dysphoria". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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