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Additional recommended knowledge
Clyster (also spelled in the 17th Century, `glister') is an old-fashioned word for enema, more particularly for enemas administered using a clyster syringe — that is, a syringe with a rectal nozzle and a plunger. Clyster syringes were used from the 17th century (or before) to the 19th century, when they were largely replaced by enema bulb syringes, bocks, and bags.
The patient was placed in an appropriate position (kneeling, with the buttocks raised, or lying on the side); some servant or apothecary would then insert the nozzle into the anus and depress the plunger, resulting in the liquid remedy (generally, water, but also some preparations) being injected into the colon.
Because of the embarrassment a woman might feel when showing her buttocks (and possibly her genitals, depending on the position) to a male apothecary, some contraptions were invented that blocked all from the apothecary's view except for the anal area. Another invention was syringes equipped with a special bent nozzle, which enabled self-administration, thereby eliminating the embarrassment.
Clysters were administered for symptoms of constipation and, with more questionable effectiveness, stomach aches and other illnesses. In his early-modern treatise, The Diseases of Women with Child, Francis Mauriceau records that both midwives and man-midwives commonly administered clysters to labouring mothers just prior to their delivery.
In Roper's biography of Sir Thomas More, his wife, Thomas More's eldest daughter, fell sick of the sweating sickness and could not be awaked by doctors. After praying, it came to Thomas More "There straightway it came into his mind that a clyster would be the one way to help her, which when he told the physicians, they at once confessed that if there were any hope of health, it was the very best help indeed, much marveling among themselves that they had not afore remembered it." -- Utopia, Thomas More.
17th and 18th century craze
Clysters were a very favorite medical treatment in the bourgeoisie and nobility of the Western world up to the 19th century. As medical knowledge was fairly limited in those days, purgative clysters were used for a wide variety of ailments, the foremost of which were stomach aches and constipation.
Molière, in several of his plays, introduces characters of incompetent physicians and apothecaries fond of prescribing this remedy, also discussed by Argan, the hypochondriac patient of Le Malade Imaginaire. More generally, clysters were a theme in the burlesque comedies of that time.
In the 18th century, Coffee clysters were taken by some people who wanted the effects of caffeine but disliked the taste of coffee. Tobacco smoke clysters were administered to fainting women, hence the phrase "to blow smoke up her ass".
According to Claude de Rouvroy, duc de Saint-Simon, clysters were so popular at the court of King Louis XIV of France that the duchess of Burgundy had her servant give her a clyster in front of the King (her modesty being preserved by an adequate posture) before going to the comedy.
Clysters also appear in sado-masochistic literature set during this period, where they are administered for disciplinary purposes. Girls especially were punished by being made to retain a large clyster for a specified time. An example is found in P.N. Dedeaux's The Prussian Girls. Castigation and embarrassment would follow failure to retain the solution.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Clyster". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|