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Candidatus Carsonella ruddii

Candidatus Carsonella ruddii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: unclassified
Genus: Candidatus Carsonella
Species: C. C. ruddii
Binomial name
Candidatus Carsonella ruddii

Carsonella ruddii

Candidatus Carsonella ruddii is an endosymbiotic Gamma Proteobacteria; it has the smallest genome of any characterised bacteria.[1]

Additional recommended knowledge

The species is an endosymbiont that is present in all species of phloem sap-feeding insects known as psyllids.[2][3] The endosymbionts occurs in a specialised structure known as the bacteriome.

In 2006 the genome of C. ruddii strain Pv (Carsonella-Pv) of the hackberry petiole gall psyllid, Pachypsylla venusta was sequenced at RIKEN in Japan and the University of Arizona. It was shown that the species genome consists of a circular chromosome of 159,662 base pairs and that the genome has a high coding density (97%) with many overlapping genes and reduced gene length. The number of predicted genes was 182, also lowest in record. In comparison, Mycoplasma genitalium, which has the smallest genome of any free-living organism, has a genome of 580,000 base pairs. Numerous genes considered essential for life are missing, suggesting that the species may have achieved organelle-like status.[1]


  1. ^ a b Nakabachi A, Yamashita A, Toh H, Ishikawa H, Dunbar H, Moran N, Hattori M (2006). "The 160-kilobase genome of the bacterial endosymbiont Carsonella.". Science 314 (5797): 267. PMID 17038615.
  2. ^ Thao, M.L. 2000. Cospeciation of Psyllids and Their Primary Prokaryotic Endosymbionts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66:2898-2905
  3. ^ Thao, M.L. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of vertically transmitted psyllid endosymbionts (Candidatus Carsonella ruddii) based on atpAGD and rpoC: comparisons with 16S-23S rDNA-derived phylogeny. Current Microbiology 42:419-21 PMID 11381334
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Candidatus_Carsonella_ruddii". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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