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Statistical methods currently recommended for analysis of in vitro micronucleus data are based on small sample sizes. The tests are designed to evaluate linear trends and differences between treated and control samples. When using flow cytometric analysis, >5 times the number of cells are easily evaluated, and the variance estimates from these large samples are small. Application of these recommended tests to large samples resulted in statistically significant outcomes which were not considered to be biologically meaningful. Alternative statistical methods for testing trends and differences among treatments that were either widely used, or sample‐size independent, were investigated. Using data from 95 experiments (from 2011–2013) where 19% of the experiments were considered positive, results for the various statistical methods were compared. When using either the recommended or alternate methods, 42–68% of the experiments resulted in statistically significant results (p < 0.05). A new concept was then tested using the same data sets: the “z′ factor”, designed to identify ‘hits’ during high throughput screening. Using this simple‐to‐compute statistic the number of significant calls was reduced to 27%. Then, when combined with a biological criterion based on historical vehicle control data, there was restoration of the original positive frequency (19%). Given the larger sample sizes evaluated using flow cytometry, we have demonstrated that traditional statistical tests may be overly sensitive to small changes in micronucleus induction, and that a simple‐to‐compute index of separation (z′) may be a better tool for analysis, provided that the response is first determined to be biologically meaningful. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abstract The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world‐wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high ... more
Abstract Background Whether morbidity from the 1918‐19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was “socially neutral”. Objectives ... more
Smart skin that can respond to external stimuli could have important applications in medicine and robotics. Using only items found in a typical household, researchers have created multi-sensor artificial skin that's capable of sensing pressure, temperature, humidity, proximity, pH, and air ... more
Some doctors may recommend that patients with the flu take acetaminophen, or paracetemol, to relieve their symptoms; however, a new randomized clinical trial found no benefits to the over-the-counter medication in terms of fighting the influenza virus or reducing patients' temperature or ot ... more
A new study that investigated the potential of certain psychological traits for predisposing heterosexuals to have negative attitudes towards homosexual people found that psychoticism - which is present in severe psychopathological conditions but may also contribute to less severe states of ... more