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Adding whey protein concentrates or isolates to expanded snack foods would boost their nutritional content; however, adding non-textured whey proteins in amounts larger than 5% interferes with expansion, making the products less crunchy. To counter this effect, whey protein isolate (WPI) was first extruded (texturized) at either 50C (WPI-50) or 90C (WPI-100) before adding to corn meal at 25% (WPI) level, and was extruded again to make the puffed product. Corn meal, corn meal with non-texturized WPI (25%), corn meal with WPI-50, or corn meal with WPI-100 were extruded at high shear conditions (300 rpm) and product temperatures of 125C. All extrudates containing texturized WPI were more expanded, firmer, crispier and easier to break than corn meal or corn meal with non-texturized WPI. Pre-texturizing whey proteins and using them in extruded snacks improves textural properties, making it possible to add large amounts of whey proteins directly into expanded snacks to fortify them. This study determined that it is better to modify whey protein isolates (WPI) before adding them to the corn meal and extruding them to create crunchy products. The process described shows that modifying the structure of the whey proteins creates a form of WPI that is more compatible with corn meal. This knowledge allows the creation of nutritious high-protein expanded crunchy snacks.
Abstract The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world‐wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high ... more
Abstract Background Whether morbidity from the 1918‐19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was “socially neutral”. Objectives ... more
Smart skin that can respond to external stimuli could have important applications in medicine and robotics. Using only items found in a typical household, researchers have created multi-sensor artificial skin that's capable of sensing pressure, temperature, humidity, proximity, pH, and air ... more
Some doctors may recommend that patients with the flu take acetaminophen, or paracetemol, to relieve their symptoms; however, a new randomized clinical trial found no benefits to the over-the-counter medication in terms of fighting the influenza virus or reducing patients' temperature or ot ... more
A new study that investigated the potential of certain psychological traits for predisposing heterosexuals to have negative attitudes towards homosexual people found that psychoticism - which is present in severe psychopathological conditions but may also contribute to less severe states of ... more