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During the past decade there has been an increasing recognition of the incidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and a better understanding of the subtle neurological and cognitive deficits that may result from it. A substantial, albeit suboptimal, effort has been made to define diagnostic criteria for mTBI and improve diagnostic accuracy. Thus, biomarkers that can accurately and objectively detect brain injury after mTBI and, ideally, aid in clinical management are needed. In this review, we discuss the current research on serum biomarkers for mTBI including their rationale and diagnostic performances. Sensitive and specific biomarkers reflecting brain injury can provide important information regarding TBI pathophysiology and serve as candidate markers for predicting abnormal computed tomography findings and/or the development of residual deficits in patients who sustain an mTBI. We also outline the roles of biomarkers in settings of specific interest including pediatric TBI, sports concussions and military injuries, and provide perspectives on the validation of such markers for use in the clinic. Finally, emerging proteomics‐based strategies for identifying novel markers will be discussed.
Abstract The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world‐wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high ... more
Abstract Background Whether morbidity from the 1918‐19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was “socially neutral”. Objectives ... more
Smart skin that can respond to external stimuli could have important applications in medicine and robotics. Using only items found in a typical household, researchers have created multi-sensor artificial skin that's capable of sensing pressure, temperature, humidity, proximity, pH, and air ... more
Some doctors may recommend that patients with the flu take acetaminophen, or paracetemol, to relieve their symptoms; however, a new randomized clinical trial found no benefits to the over-the-counter medication in terms of fighting the influenza virus or reducing patients' temperature or ot ... more
A new study that investigated the potential of certain psychological traits for predisposing heterosexuals to have negative attitudes towards homosexual people found that psychoticism - which is present in severe psychopathological conditions but may also contribute to less severe states of ... more