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This study bridges a carbohydrate microarray discovery and a large‐scale serological validation of anti‐oligomannose antibodies as novel serum biomarkers of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). Experimentally, a Man9‐cluster‐specific enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay was established to enable sensitive detection of anti‐Man9 antibodies in human sera. A large‐cohort of men with PCa or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) whose sera were banked at Stanford University was characterized using this assay. Subjects included patients with 100% Gleason grade 3 cancer (n = 84), with Gleason grades 4 and/or 5 cancer (n = 204), and BPH controls (n = 135). Radical prostatectomy Gleason grades and biochemical (PSA) recurrence served as key parameters for serum biomarker evaluation. It was found that IgGMan9 and IgMMan9 were widely present in the sera of men with BPH, as well as those with cancer. However, these antibody reactivities were significantly increased in the subjects with the largest volumes of high grade cancer. Detection of serum IgGMan9 and IgMMan9 significantly predicted the clinical outcome of PCa post‐radical prostatectomy. Given these results, we suggest that IgGMan9 and IgMMan9 are novel serum biomarkers for monitoring aggressive progression of PCa. The potential of oligomannosyl antigens as targets for PCa subtyping and targeted immunotherapy is yet to be explored.
Abstract The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world‐wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high ... more
Abstract Background Whether morbidity from the 1918‐19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was “socially neutral”. Objectives ... more
Smart skin that can respond to external stimuli could have important applications in medicine and robotics. Using only items found in a typical household, researchers have created multi-sensor artificial skin that's capable of sensing pressure, temperature, humidity, proximity, pH, and air ... more
Some doctors may recommend that patients with the flu take acetaminophen, or paracetemol, to relieve their symptoms; however, a new randomized clinical trial found no benefits to the over-the-counter medication in terms of fighting the influenza virus or reducing patients' temperature or ot ... more
A new study that investigated the potential of certain psychological traits for predisposing heterosexuals to have negative attitudes towards homosexual people found that psychoticism - which is present in severe psychopathological conditions but may also contribute to less severe states of ... more