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Hot break, cold break and commercially canned tomato juice was concentrated by vacuum concentration and solid‐liquid separation (SLS). Tomato products from vacuum concentration had higher soluble solids than those from SLS because of loss of soluble solids into the filtrate. Most volatile levels in vacuum concentration greatly decreased initially then remained constant during further concentration. In SLS, volatile levels linearly decreased with increasing concentration so SLS had greater retention of volatile compounds than vacuum concentration. Viscosity of the rediluted samples decreased with concentration, except in the hot break and commercial samples from SLS, which maintained the same viscosity. Samples from SLS were close to the original color while vacuum concentration was redder due to heat‐induced Maillard browning. Vitamin C decreased during concentration with greater loss during SLS than vacuum concentration. SLS consumed 45 times less electric power energy than vacuum concentration, which also needed water for creating vacuum conditions.Practical Applications
Solid‐liquid separation (SLS) is a new technology for dewatering products, such as concentration of tomato juice. SLS does not need heat to concentrate the product; therefore, the processor may be able to reduce energy consumption while better preserving flavor and viscosity of the product.
Abstract The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world‐wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high ... more
Abstract Background Whether morbidity from the 1918‐19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was “socially neutral”. Objectives ... more
Smart skin that can respond to external stimuli could have important applications in medicine and robotics. Using only items found in a typical household, researchers have created multi-sensor artificial skin that's capable of sensing pressure, temperature, humidity, proximity, pH, and air ... more
Some doctors may recommend that patients with the flu take acetaminophen, or paracetemol, to relieve their symptoms; however, a new randomized clinical trial found no benefits to the over-the-counter medication in terms of fighting the influenza virus or reducing patients' temperature or ot ... more
A new study that investigated the potential of certain psychological traits for predisposing heterosexuals to have negative attitudes towards homosexual people found that psychoticism - which is present in severe psychopathological conditions but may also contribute to less severe states of ... more