The pore-forming protein gasdermin D (GSDMD) was recently identified as the principal executioner of pyroptosis (“fiery death”), a type of proinflammatory programmed cell death driven by inflammasomes. Caspase-1 cleaves GSDMD, but whether this process contributes to neuroinflammation is unknown. Here, we report evidence of GSDMD-mediated pyroptosis as a primary mechanism of inflammatory demyelination in the central nervous system during multiple sclerosis (MS), a debilitating and incurable demyelinating disease that causes profound loss of myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. By identifying GSDMD induction and pyroptosis in oligodendrocytes and microglia, we discovered a previously unrecognized mechanism driving neuroinflammation and demyelination. Pharmacologically inhibiting caspase-1 prevented pyroptosis in experimental models of MS, reducing demyelination and neurodegeneration. These findings highlight therapeutic approaches for understanding and treating inflammatory demyelination.