MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play important roles in the control of cell fitness, differentiation, and development. The CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing system is composed of the Cas9 nuclease in complex with a single guide RNA (sgRNA) and directs DNA cleavage at a predetermined site. Several CRISPR-Cas9 libraries have been constructed for genome-scale knockout screens of protein function; however, few libraries have included miRNA genes. Here we constructed a miRNA-focused CRISPR-Cas9 library that targets 1594 (85%) annotated human miRNA stem–loops. The sgRNAs in our LX-miR library are designed to have high on-target and low off-target activity, and each miRNA is targeted by four to five sgRNAs. We used this sgRNA library to screen for miRNAs that affect cell fitness of HeLa or NCI-N87 cells by monitoring the change in frequency of each sgRNA over time. By considering the expression in the tested cells and the dysregulation of the miRNAs in cancer specimens, we identified five HeLa pro-fitness and cervical cancer up-regulated miRNAs (miR-31-5p, miR-92b-3p, miR-146b-5p, miR-151a-3p, and miR-194-5p). Similarly, we identified six NCI-N87 pro-fitness and gastric cancer up-regulated miRNAs (miR-95-3p, miR-181a-5p, miR-188-5p, miR-196b-5p, miR-584-5p, and miR-1304-3p), as well as three anti-fitness and down-regulated miRNAs (let-7a-3p, miR-100-5p, and miR-149-5p). Some of those miRNAs are known to be oncogenic or tumor-suppressive, but others are novel. Taken together, the LX-miR library is useful for genome-wide unbiased screening to identify miRNAs important for cellular fitness and likely to be useful for other functional screens.
We tested the proposal that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures support not just memory but also high-level object perception. In one task, participants decided whether a line drawing could represent an object in three-dimensional space and, in another task, they saw the components of an ... more
Fear memory is a highly stable and durable form of memory, even over vast (remote) time frames. Nevertheless, some elements of fear memory can be forgotten, resulting in generalization. The purpose of this study is to determine how cued fear memory generalizes over time and measure underlyi ... more
A person sees an object once, and then seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks later, she sees it again. How is the person's visual memory for that object changed, improved, or degraded by the second encounter, compared to a situation in which she will have only seen the object once? The an ... more
Male breast cancer (MBC) is a very rare tumor type, occurring in just 1% of all breast cancer cases, and the underlying genetic causes and treatment of MBC is not well understood. In a paper researchers from Italy and the U.S. describe novel genetic variants found in a hormone receptor posi ... more
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by huntingtin protein aggregates in a patient's brain, but how these aggregates form is not well understood. In a study published in Genome Research, researchers developed a novel computational strategy to identify interacti ... more
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is used in fertility clinics to detect large chromosomal abnormalities or genetic mutations passed on by parents to their in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos. However, it is not possible to comprehensively scan the embryo's genome to detect spontaneous ... more