Available online 31 January 2018
Author(s): Baolin Huang, Zihan Wu, Sai Ding, Yuan Yuan, Changsheng Liu
Localization of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with continuous and effective osteogenic stimulation is still a great challenge in the field of bone regeneration. To achieve this aim, rhBMP-2 was tethered on chondroitin sulfate (CS)-functionalized calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds through specific noncovalent interactions. CS, one of the core glycosaminoglycans, was covalently conjugated onto CPC scaffolds with the assistance of polydopamine (PDA) and further immobilized rhBMP-2 in a biomimetic form. The CPC-PDA-CS scaffolds not only controlled the release kinetics and presentation state of rhBMP-2 but also effectively increased the expression levels of bone morphogenetic protein receptors (BMPRs) and enhanced the recognitions of the remaining rhBMP-2 to BMPRs. Strikingly, the rhBMP-2-loaded CPC-PDA-CS significantly promoted the cellular surface translocation of BMPRs (especially BMPR-IA). In vivo studies demonstrated that, compared with the rhBMP-2 upon CPC and CPC-PDA, the rhBMP-2 upon CPC-PDA-CS exhibited sustained release and induced high quality and more ectopic bone formation. Collectively, these results suggest that rhBMP-2 can be localized within CS-functionalized CPC scaffolds and exert continuous, long-term, and effective osteogenic stimulation. Thus, this work could provide new avenues in mimicking bone extracellular matrix microenvironment and localizing growth factor activity for enhanced bone regeneration. Statement of Significance A bioinspired chondroitin sulfate (CS)-functionalized calcium phosphate cement (CPC) platform was developed to tether recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), which could exhibit continuous, long-term, and effective osteogenic stimulation in bone tissue engineering. Compared with rhBMP-2-loaded CPC, the rhBMP-2-loaded CPC-polydopamine-CS scaffolds induced higher expression of bone morphogenetic protein receptors (BMPRs), greater cellular surface translocation of bone morphogenetic protein receptor-IA, higher binding affinity of BMPRs/rhBMP-2, and thus higher activation of the drosophila gene mothers against decapentaplegic protein-1/5/8 (Smad1/5/8) and extracellular-regulated protein kinases-1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling. This work can provide new guidelines for the design of BMP-2-based bioactive materials for bone regeneration.