The titer of a lentivirus vector is often expressed in transducing units per milliliter. This is a functional titer that reflects the lentivirus’ ability to transduce a particular cell line under specific conditions. Transduction of other cell lines is likely to be different and will require optimization. 293T cells are used for production of lentivirus stocks, and they can be easily transduced with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G) pseudotyped lentivirus vectors. Consequently, this cell line is commonly used to determine the functional titer of lentivirus vector stocks produced with this envelope. For lentivirus vectors encoding fluorescent proteins under the control of promoters functional in these cells, titration can be performed using the limiting dilution method or a flow cytometry-based method. For lentivirus vectors lacking a fluorescent marker, or for those carrying promoters that may not be functional in 293T cells, titer can be determined either by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quantification of viral genomes in genomic DNA from transduced cells or a p24 ELISA-based assay.
We tested the proposal that medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures support not just memory but also high-level object perception. In one task, participants decided whether a line drawing could represent an object in three-dimensional space and, in another task, they saw the components of an ... more
Fear memory is a highly stable and durable form of memory, even over vast (remote) time frames. Nevertheless, some elements of fear memory can be forgotten, resulting in generalization. The purpose of this study is to determine how cued fear memory generalizes over time and measure underlyi ... more
A person sees an object once, and then seconds, minutes, hours, days, or weeks later, she sees it again. How is the person's visual memory for that object changed, improved, or degraded by the second encounter, compared to a situation in which she will have only seen the object once? The an ... more
Male breast cancer (MBC) is a very rare tumor type, occurring in just 1% of all breast cancer cases, and the underlying genetic causes and treatment of MBC is not well understood. In a paper researchers from Italy and the U.S. describe novel genetic variants found in a hormone receptor posi ... more
Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by huntingtin protein aggregates in a patient's brain, but how these aggregates form is not well understood. In a study published in Genome Research, researchers developed a novel computational strategy to identify interacti ... more
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is used in fertility clinics to detect large chromosomal abnormalities or genetic mutations passed on by parents to their in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos. However, it is not possible to comprehensively scan the embryo's genome to detect spontaneous ... more