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Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS), hydrolyzed products of chitosan, was found to display various biological activities. Herein, we assessed the immunostimulatory activity of COS both in in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro cytotoxicity studies to murine macrophage RAW264.7 revealed that COS is safe even at the maximum tested concentration of 1000 μg/mL. It also stimulates the production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF‐α) and enhances the phagocytosis in COS‐stimulated RAW264.7. We have shown that the COS could significantly (P < 0.05) restore the reduced immune organs indices, phagocytic index, lymphocyte proliferation, natural killer cell activity, and antioxidant enzyme activities in a cyclophosphamide‐induced immunosuppressed mice model. COS can also improve the survival rate in irradiation injury mice and significantly (P < 0.05) increased the spleen indices and up‐regulates the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in splenocytes. In sum, the aforementioned results suggest that COS might has the potential to be used as an immunostimulatory agent in patients with immune dysfunctions or be a model for functional food development.Practical Application
COS might has the potential to be used as an immunostimulatory agent in patients with immune dysfunctions or be a model for functional food development.
Abstract The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world‐wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high ... more
Abstract Background Whether morbidity from the 1918‐19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was “socially neutral”. Objectives ... more
Smart skin that can respond to external stimuli could have important applications in medicine and robotics. Using only items found in a typical household, researchers have created multi-sensor artificial skin that's capable of sensing pressure, temperature, humidity, proximity, pH, and air ... more
Some doctors may recommend that patients with the flu take acetaminophen, or paracetemol, to relieve their symptoms; however, a new randomized clinical trial found no benefits to the over-the-counter medication in terms of fighting the influenza virus or reducing patients' temperature or ot ... more
A new study that investigated the potential of certain psychological traits for predisposing heterosexuals to have negative attitudes towards homosexual people found that psychoticism - which is present in severe psychopathological conditions but may also contribute to less severe states of ... more