Structures and Antibacterial Properties of Isorugosins H–J, Oligomeric Ellagitannins from Liquidambar formosana with Characteristic Bridging Groups between Sugar Moieties
Three new ellagitannin oligomers, isorugosins H (1), I (2), and J (3), together with 11 known hydrolyzable tannins were isolated from an aqueous acetone extract of the fresh leaves of Liquidambar formosana. Their chemical structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic data and chemical conversion into known hydrolyzable tannins. The bridging mode of the valoneoyl groups between their sugar moieties has been identified only in this plant species. Additionally, the effects of the isorugosins isolated from this species on drug-resistant bacteria were evaluated and showed that isorugosin A (4) exhibited the most potent antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The isorugosins also had a suppressing effect on pigment formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The isorugosin–protein complexes were analyzed using size-exclusion chromatography and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to clarify the relationship of their antibacterial properties with their protein interaction po...
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