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Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have attracted increasing attention as a useful small non‐human primate model in preclinical research. However, studies on marmoset cytochrome P450 (P450) 2E enzyme have scarcely been conducted. In this study, the full‐length cDNA encoding P450 2E1 enzyme was isolated from marmoset livers by reverse transcription (RT)‐polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Marmoset P450 2E1 amino acid sequences were highly identical (>88%) to those of cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2E1 enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated a close evolutionary relationship among marmoset, cynomolgus monkey, and human P450 2E1 enzymes. The tissue expression pattern analyzed by real‐time RT PCR and immunoblotting demonstrated that marmoset P450 2E1 mRNA and proteins were predominantly expressed in livers. Marmoset P450 2E1 enzyme heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli catalyzed the hydroxylation of p‐nitrophenol, chlorzoxazone, and theophylline, similar to cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2E1 enzymes. By kinetic analyses, those P450 2E1 enzymes catalyzed p‐nitrophenol hydroxylation with similar affinities and relatively high intrinsic clearance efficiencies. These results indicated that tissue distribution and enzyme‐substrate specificity of marmoset P450 2E1 were similar to cynomolgus monkey and human P450 2E1 enzymes, suggesting that marmosets are a suitable primate model for P450 2E1‐dependent drug and xenobiotic metabolism.
Abstract The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world‐wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high ... more
Abstract Background Whether morbidity from the 1918‐19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was “socially neutral”. Objectives ... more
Smart skin that can respond to external stimuli could have important applications in medicine and robotics. Using only items found in a typical household, researchers have created multi-sensor artificial skin that's capable of sensing pressure, temperature, humidity, proximity, pH, and air ... more
Some doctors may recommend that patients with the flu take acetaminophen, or paracetemol, to relieve their symptoms; however, a new randomized clinical trial found no benefits to the over-the-counter medication in terms of fighting the influenza virus or reducing patients' temperature or ot ... more
A new study that investigated the potential of certain psychological traits for predisposing heterosexuals to have negative attitudes towards homosexual people found that psychoticism - which is present in severe psychopathological conditions but may also contribute to less severe states of ... more