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In this study, the effect of different sonication times (10, 20, and 30 min) on oil yields, extracted by using soxhlet together with preultrasonic treatment, and fatty acid composition of seed/kernels were investigated. The sonication of samples for 30 min caused the highest increase in oil yield of hazelnut (from 62.38 to 63.60%) and black cumin (from 27.90 to 31.80%) (p < .05). The appropriate sonication time for oil yield of peanut was 10 min, with the range of 51.50%. After sonication process, the dominant fatty acid contents of all samples showed a change and the major decrease in oleic acid amount of hazelnut (from 75.20 to 74.27%) and peanut oils (from 57.10 to 56.69%) and linoleic acid content of black cumin (from 58.38 to 57.50%) were determined when samples sonicated for 30 min (p < .05). Sonication process caused a decreasing in black cumin oil, and the reduction increased with sonication time.Practical applications
Ultrasound‐assisted extraction method can be used as an alternative extraction method for conventional extraction. Ultrasonic‐assisted extraction has some advantages as being efficiency, speed and using low temperatures, which prevents thermal damage. The ultrasound process enables to greater influence of solvent into the sample matrix and increases mass transfer. Thereby, the higher extract yield, almost 23%, provided with ultrasonic‐assisted extraction in comparison to soxhlet extraction.
Abstract The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world‐wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high ... more
Abstract Background Whether morbidity from the 1918‐19 influenza pandemic discriminated by socioeconomic status has remained a subject of debate for 100 years. In lack of data to study this issue recent literature have hypothesized that morbidity was “socially neutral”. Objectives ... more
Smart skin that can respond to external stimuli could have important applications in medicine and robotics. Using only items found in a typical household, researchers have created multi-sensor artificial skin that's capable of sensing pressure, temperature, humidity, proximity, pH, and air ... more
Some doctors may recommend that patients with the flu take acetaminophen, or paracetemol, to relieve their symptoms; however, a new randomized clinical trial found no benefits to the over-the-counter medication in terms of fighting the influenza virus or reducing patients' temperature or ot ... more
A new study that investigated the potential of certain psychological traits for predisposing heterosexuals to have negative attitudes towards homosexual people found that psychoticism - which is present in severe psychopathological conditions but may also contribute to less severe states of ... more